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Sur L’Heptameron de Marguerite de Navarre. National Impact Analysis | Energy! Enquetes d’authenticite. Pages : 256 ISBN : 9782130544746 DOI : 10.3917/rhlf.042.0269 Editeur : Presses Universitaires de France A propos de cette revue Site de la revue. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. ALERTES EMAIL - REVUE Revue d'histoire litteraire de la France. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte.

Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Sample Bridal! Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. L’HEPTAMERON ET SES AVATARS EN 1559 : TROIS NOUVELLES INCONGRUES. L’Heptameron , a peine publie, eut son succes, et qui dura aussi longtemps qu’il y eut des « honnetes gens » pour se plaire aux vieux textes. Impact Analysis | Energy! Mais quand Marguerite de Navarre mourut, en decembre 1549, il fallait, pour le lire, en trouver quelque copie manuscrite. Free Makes It Easy To Create A Disaster! En 1558 seulement vint la premiere edition, sans nom d’auteur, donnee par Pierre Boaistuau, bizarrement intitulee Histoires des amans fortunez , et bien loin encore du recueil que nous connaissons : il y avait la soixante-sept, et non pas soixante-douze, nouvelles, dans un ordre ou plutot dans un desordre etrange ou s’efface la division en journees, ou se brouillent les roles des conteurs et ou surgissent parfois des annonces hors de propos. National | Energy Analysis! Des 1559, autre edition, et qui fit aussitot oublier la precedente au point d’etre tenue, en somme, pour une edition princeps . Free Makes A Disaster Recovery Plan! Claude Gruget la publie sous le nom de l’auteur, la dedie a la propre fille de Marguerite, trouve le titre d’ Heptameron et se vante a bon droit d’avoir remis le livre en son « vray ordre » [1] [1] Sur ces deux editions, voir N. And Environmental! Cazauran, « Boaistuau. Technical Special Get The Resume! . National Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! C’est le texte qui sera lu jusqu’en 1698 ou l’on a voulu en donner une version « en beau langage » reecrite phrase a phrase : encore s’ap-puie-t-elle constamment sur celle de Gruget dont elle ne change en rien ni l’ampleur, ni la disposition, ni la substance [2] [2] La version en « beau langage » fut reeditee jusqu’en. Sample Wedding Budgets! . Faut-il croire aussi volontiers Gruget quand il pretend avoir « demasque » le livre pour le « rendre en son naturel » [3] [3] Il le dit dans sa dedicace a la fille de Marguerite. National Analysis Analysis And Environmental! ? Je ne reviendrai pas ici sur les coupures et recritures pratiquees par Boaistuau et qu’il maintient : ce sont variantes eparses et qui s’expliquent par le souci de ne rien imprimer qui puisse faire suspecter l’orthodoxie de la defunte reine de Navarre tante du tres catholique roi Henri II. 11+ Sample Of Hse Plan | Postal-Carrier! Il y a plus surprenant.

Si Gruget donne bien et en bon ordre, comme font les manuscrits les plus longs, soixante-douze nouvelles, c’est par un tour de passe-passe dont on National Impact Analysis, ne s’est pas avise avant que Leroux de Lincy, en 1853, publie une edition enfin fondee sur un manuscrit. Social Work Cv Template Social Worker Cv Youth Cv. Social! En 1559, en effet, on National Analysis, ne lisait ni la nouvelle 11, pourtant deja publiee par Boaistuau, ni les nouvelles 44 et 46 : Gruget leur en avait substitue d’autres, chacune suivie, comme toujours dans L’Heptameron , d’un debat dialogue. Free Recovery! Il eut ses raisons, qu’il n’est pas impossible de demeler [4] [4] Voir l’article cite note 1, p. Impact! 157-159. Sample Wedding Budgets 5000 Bridal! , mais il faut bien aussi et surtout se demander ou il a trouve ces nouvelles incongrues qui ne figurent dans aucun des manuscrits repertories. National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis! Serait-ce la des textes que Marguerite aurait, a la reflexion, exclus, mais que Gruget aurait trouves dans quelque manuscrit que nous n’avons plus ? La question merite examen. En 1985, P. School Sign Out Sheet. In Sheet Best! A. Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis! Chilton s’est interroge sur leur authenticite et il regrettait de ne pouvoir s’aider d’une concordance pour preciser son approche stylostatistical [5] [5] P. Social Work Social Cv Youth Cv. Social! Chilton, « The Epaves of the Impact Analysis, Heptameron.

Some quantitative. | Postal-Carrier! . Analysis And Environmental! Mais desormais, depuis 1990-1991, on 11+ Sample Of Hse Plan, dispose de deux concordances [6] [6] Des deux concordances, l’une est inutilisable pour. | Energy! , dont l’une permet d’examiner le lexique de ces trois nouvelles propres a l’edition Gruget. 11+ Sample Plan! Si elles sont diverses d’ampleur, de ton et de sujet, leur ecriture a pourtant en commun une singularite qui les met a part et qu’il est aise de mettre en evidence. La pseudo-nouvelle 11 [7] [7] Gruget avait ses raisons pour supprimer l’authentique. Impact Analysis And Environmental! est celle, a coup sur, qui surprend le plus : ni le cordelier predicateur, ni Hircan ou Simontault qui glosent ses sermons n’hesitent le moins du monde devant les « villaines paroles » severement reprouvees par Oisille dans le debat de la N. Free To Create A Disaster! 52 et Paul Chilton lui-meme, qui s’est efforce d’ajouter, aux soixante-douze nouvelles de la vulgate, des « epaves » qu’aurait abandonnees la reine, n’a pas songe a soutenir l’authenticite de ces « propos facetieux » et obscenes. National Analysis! Mais a ce sentiment de lecteur on It Easy To Create Recovery Plan, peut ajouter un argument tout objectif : la proportion insolite, dans les mots et tournures employes, d’occurrences qui, dans L’Heptameron , sont des hapax. National And Environmental! Excluons les termes concrets indissociables de leur contexte, comme andouilles ou baquet ou meme les tournures proverbiales usuelles : il y en a un peu partout et elles sont rarement repetees.

Reste une vingtaine de ces hapax. D’abord, savants ou familiers, des noms, des adjectifs, des verbes que je cite dans l’ordre et sous la forme ou ils apparaissent : facetieux (dans le titre de Gruget, mais repris par Saffredent dans le debat), enlangage, risee (deux occurrences), propos recreatifs, cacqueter, efficace (subst.), chiches et, dans le debat, effronte, erudition, derisions, devotieuses, amphibologie, impudemment, femmelette, modestie , rentrer dans ses erres . S’y ajoutent : maistre frere et, dans le debat, maistre moine (qui reapparait dans le debat de la pseudo-nouvelle 46), « maitre » etant longtemps d’usage, selon le Dictionnaire comique de Leroux, « dans le comique et le burlesque » pour donner de l’emphase a un mot, au sens de « au supreme degre »; ou encore l’adversatif ains , aussi dans les pseudo-nouvelles 44 et 46, et enfin, pour apostropher, un « Tout beau , Seigneur Simontault », sans autre exemple. Technical Special Get The Resume Template! On pourrait meme relever : se mettre sur le beau bout , pour « chercher a briller », proche de se mettre sur le bon bout dans la pseudo-nouvelle 44. C’est vraiment beaucoup en si peu de pages. La pseudo-nouvelle 44, malgre son ton tres bourgeois, ne parait pas si disconvenante que les « propos facetieux » du cordelier et le debat y porte, comme il arrive ailleurs, sur le mariage. National | Energy! Mais, la aussi, les hapax abondent.

Deux fois plus longue que la pseudo-nouvelle 11, elle en offre plus du double, une bonne quarantaine : Mediocre, politic, familierement, mettable, propagation (des enfans), pensement, vulgaire (quatre emplois), faire trafic, mariable, colloquer, caquet, censurer, aigre (au sens figure), inopinement, acoster, familiere et familiers, s’advantager, se racointerent, caresses, apoinct, s’entrecaresserent, promenoir, abry, etre aux alteres, rageant, folastrement, serrant (avare), parfourny , et dans le debat, adultere, violement, amourettes [8] [8] Amourettes, employe par Gruget au titre de la N. Of Hse Plan! 58. National Analysis And Environmental! , repliqua , cornuz (au figure), forcement, coquine [9] [9] On trouve bien coquin dans le sens courant de gueux. School Sign Confidential Sign In Sheet! , approbation, corruption, depravee, tacitement, subornation . A quoi s’ajoutent des tournures familieres, plus ou moins lexicalisees : Se mettre sur le bon bout (chercher a se parer), y allant a la bonne foy , laisser moisir son pucelage, se faire tirer l’oreille . Encore ne faut-il pas oublier des formules de liaison qui sont absentes des autres nouvelles : ains (deja note dans la pseudo-nouvelle 11), de toute anciennete , sur ces entrefaictes , et sous ombre de . Reste la pseudo-nouvelle 46 [10] [10] Elle met en scene le meme cordelier que la nouvelle. Impact Analysis! , de loin la plus breve, ou l’on retrouve encore ains et maistre moine, deja notes, mais aussi onze nouveaux hapax : Dissolument, fy, encontre, predication (trois emplois dont un dans le debat), collauder , infracteur, chevir, excitee, s’emancipant, attraiante (au sens de « seduisante ») et un terme tout nouveau dans le vocabulaire militaire, stratagemes [11] [11] Voir Henri Estienne, dans l’Apologie pour Herodote. Social Cv Template Social Cv. Social! . Ce releve, a l’evidence, ne saurait echapper a quelque approximation : j’ai pu noter tel ou tel mot que le contexte imposait presque et en negliger d’autres par inattention. National Analysis! D’autre part, on Sign Confidential Sign, ne doit pas oublier qu’il y a des hapax epars un peu partout dans L’Heptameron , et parfois sans que rien les exige : mettre assus , par exemple, dans la nouvelle 30 (p. Impact Analysis! 339) ou, dans la nouvelle 49 (p. Budgets – Bernit Bridal! 458), nenny [12] [12] Nenny est peut etre plus vif et familier que non dans. National Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental! , qui pourtant tendait alors a ceder la place a non , plusieurs fois atteste dans des reponses negatives (debats de la N. Of Hse Plan! 10 p. National And Environmental! 158, et de la N. Get The Template! 37, p. | Energy And Environmental! 387; dialogues de la N. Template Makes It Easy A Disaster Plan! 42 p. Analysis! 413 et de N. Template It Easy To Create A Disaster! 53, p. | Energy! 481). Mais, a examiner le corpus donne par les manuscrits les plus longs et qui, malgre de multiples variantes de detail, compose une vulgate ou le lexique est etonnamment stable, on School Out Sheet. Sign, a droit de conclure que les hapax sont rares. National Analysis Analysis! Ils sont le plus souvent concrets et strictement voulus par la matiere du recit. Work Cv Template Social Cv Youth Worker! D’ordinaire isoles, ils se repetent ou voisinent seulement quand le sujet l’exige : ainsi le muletier , la muletiere et les mulets dans la nouvelle 2, le boucher et les boudins dans la nouvelle 34, la terrible salade de la nouvelle 36 et, reunis pour la grand’messe de la nouvelle 19, au sortir du revestoire , le diacre , le soudiacre et l’ accolite portant les canettes . Impact Analysis! Dans la malodorante nouvelle 52, si le recit comporte une dizaine d’hapax, avec variations sur le verbe puer , le debat se borne a opposer paroles puantes a paroles « villaines » (p. Budgets – Bernit Bridal! 476-477).

Dans les trois « nouvelles Gruget », le nombre des occurrences uniques que nous avons pu relever, sans meme tenir compte des mots concrets etroitement lies aux situations, est incontestablement tres insolite. Impact And Environmental! Si certains sont des mots rares, comme amphibologie ou infracteur , la plupart sont d’usage courant et pourraient convenir dans bien des contextes. Work Cv Template Social Cv Youth Worker! Pourquoi, ailleurs dans L’Heptameron , dans ces contes et debats si varies de sujets et de tons, ne trouve-t-on jamais facetieux , risee , ni derision ou encore caresses , familierement et familier ou bien vulgaire , pas plus qu’ amourettes , qui figure au titre de la N. Impact! 58, ou effronte que Gruget emploie pour qualifier l’amour de la Bourguignonne au titre de la nouvelle 61 ? Hasard peut-etre. Work Cv Template Social Worker Cv Youth Cv. Social! Mais on National Analysis Analysis And Environmental, ne trouve pas davantage des tournures passe-partout, servant a enchainer : ains , peut-etre archaisant face a « mais », sur ces entrefaictes , de toute anciennete et, plus signifiant, sous ombre de que Gruget emploie aux titres des nouvelles 13 et 22. Les trois recits ont chacun leur caractere propre, meme si deux sur trois mettent en scene des sermons de cordeliers, et Gruget pourrait bien avoir puise a des sources diverses, manuscrites, voire meme imprimees dans quelque opuscule oublie. Social Work Cv Template Worker Cv Youth! On ne peut pourtant se satisfaire tout a fait de l’hypothese. | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Outre certains hapax communs aux trois, chacun est suivi d’un debat dont le ton licentieux, bourgeois ou simplement plaisant, s’accorde bien a l’anecdote glosee et ces debats, comme ailleurs, relient les recits au recueil ou ils s’enclavent, faisant parler les memes devisants dont la presence et les roles assurent la coherence de l’ensemble. Free Template A Disaster Recovery! Si l’on ne veut pas admettre que les interpolations de Gruget — etrangeres a l’edition de Boaistuau qui a precede la sienne comme a tous les manuscrits connus — soient fondees sur quelque copie perdue qui aurait donne soixante-quinze et non soixante-douze nouvelles, il faut bien y voir des pastiches dont les debats dialogues sont la marque evidente.

Gruget serait-il l’auteur du tout ? Comment savoir ? Tout au plus a-t-on pu noter que certains des hapax releves — amourettes , effronte , sous ombre de — se retrouvent sous sa plume dans ses titres (N. National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! 58,61,13 et 22). Makes Recovery! Erudition se lit aussi dans sa dedicace a Jeanne d’Albret et deja en 1551, dans son epitre — preface aux Dialogues de Sperone Speroni [13] [13] Dialogues de Sperone Speroni : Dialogo d’amore, traduit. Impact Analysis And Environmental! . Resume Best Template! Ce n’est guere. | Energy Analysis And Environmental! On pourrait y ajouter, dans ses titres, une quinzaine de mots qui ne sont pas dans le texte de Marguerite : impetrer (N. 25+ Disney Coloring Pages | Disney! 1), mais qui convient au contexte juridique, un quidam (N. National Analysis | Energy! 8, aussi dans le titre de Boaistuau), impudence (N. 11+ Sample! 12), deux fois affiner (N. Analysis And Environmental! 28 et 69), un « Jannin de village » (N. Free It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery Plan! 29), paillardise (N.

31), sous pretexte de (N. Impact And Environmental! 33) industrie (N. Plan | Postal-Carrier! 35), putier (N. Analysis Analysis! 38), continence (N. Technical Special Template Resume Template! 42, aussi chez Boaistuau), demenement (N. National And Environmental! 43), frauder (N. Best Ideas Only! 55), deux fois acoler (N. Analysis And Environmental! 59 et 71), pertinacite (61), un traict de l’amour (N. 25+ Disney Ideas Only | Disney! 68), aux abois de la mort (N.

71). | Energy! Autant de mots dont beaucoup peuvent passer pour allant de soi pour intituler tel ou tel recit, mais dont beaucoup aussi auraient pu se rencontrer dans le texte des nouvelles — impudence n’est pas meme represente par l’adjectif, pas plus que continence ou paillardise . Special Get The Resume Template! Au total, sur soixante-douze, ou plutot sur soixante-neuf titres, si l’on exclut ce que j’ai appele les pseudo-nouvelles, ce sont dix-huit termes (et il doit y en avoir d’autres) propres aux titres de Gruget et deux seulement peuvent lui venir de Boaistuau dont les titres, beaucoup plus longs, sont quasi des resumes. National Impact Analysis | Energy! Certes, ce n’est pas un argument pour conclure que le lexique de Claude Gruget n’est pas celui de la reine, c’est tout au plus un indice pour supposer — a defaut d’autre hypothese plus plausible — qu’il a bien pu rediger les trois nouvelles [14] [14] La matiere des recits peut venir aussi de sources orales. Best 25+ Disney Coloring Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest! et debats qui sont propres a son edition. National Impact | Energy Analysis! Pendant des siecles, il est vrai, elles sont restees, pour ainsi dire, fondues dans un ensemble dont les amateurs devaient gouter surtout la variete, entre tragique et comique en tout genre, et dont les moralistes reprouvaient les libertes et gaillardises, sans que personne n’y voie rien de disparate. Out Sheet. In Sheet Best! Nous avons beau jeu, aujourd’hui a nous en etonner. Impact Analysis! Mais, quoi qu’il en soit de l’auteur de ces « nouvelles Gruget » il suffit, je crois, de mesurer combien leur lexique les met a part du corpus des manuscrits pour conclure, sans trop d’hesitation, a une origine apocryphe. Free To Create Recovery! Il est bien difficile, voire impossible, d’y reconnaitre la plume de Marguerite de Navarre. L’HISTOIRE DANS UNE HISTOIRE : LE CAS DE LA TRENTIEME NOUVELLE. Boaistuau, en 1558, resumait ainsi la nouvelle 30, qu’il placait en dernier dans sa collection [15] [15] Sur l’edition de Boaistuau, voir supra, p. Impact Analysis And Environmental! 269 et note. 11+ Sample Of Hse Plan! : D’une femme que son filz engrossa, dont elle eut une belle fille, laquelle depuis son pere espousa et de la penitence qu’en feit la mere. Quand on National Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental, n’en retient que cette trame, rien de neuf dans cette nouvelle : j’ai pu le montrer jadis, en 1978, et Jean-Claude Arnould y est revenu en 1990 [16] [16] N. Social Worker Cv. Social! Cazauran, « La trentieme nouvelle (…) ou la meditation. National Analysis | Energy! . School Sign Confidential Sign! Le schema s’enracine, pour son debut, dans une tradition tres ancienne et il prend sa forme plus complexe, ou un deuxieme inceste succede au premier, precisement au temps de Marguerite de Navarre, dans les annees 1540, sous la plume d’un chanoine italien comme dans une lecon de Luther sur un chapitre de la Genese.

Marguerite a pourtant voulu, avec plus d’obstination qu’ailleurs, ancrer son recit dans un temps et un milieu tout proches d’elle, comme le fait aussi Bandello en italien, dans ses Nouvelles publiees en 1554, qu’il ait suivi quelque manuscrit d’un Heptameron encore inedit ou qu’il ait eu, comme il le pretend, son propre garant [17] [17] Plusieurs nouvelles de L’Heptameron ont leur pendant. National Analysis! . Free Template A Disaster! Et quand le dialogue moral ou, pour mieux dire, religieux qui suit l’etrange histoire d’Hircan se suspend pour faire place a un recit en raccourci, ce recit se situe encore, et, cette fois, sans que l’on puisse soupconner le moindre double-jeu, dans le temps vecu par l’auteur et ses devisants. D’abord, et seulement dans L’Heptameron , l’action est situee « au temps du Roy Loys douziesme ». National | Energy! On rencontre beaucoup de debuts analogues [18] [18] Voir, entre autres, les N. 11+ Sample Of Hse Plan! 1,15,16,19,26,52,62. Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental! Les. Work Cv Template Social Cv Youth Cv. Social! , mais il s’y joint ici une reference plus precise et moins attendue au Legat en Avignon, alors « de la maison d’Amboise nepveu du Legat de France nomme Georges » (p. National! 338). Best Coloring Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney! Autant de details exacts et pas si gratuits qu’il semblerait. National Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Le texte suggere une date, ou du moins un moment et distingue, comme il convient, le legat en Avignon et le legat en France, dont les roles ne se confondent pas. Free Template It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery! Aupres d’un prince chretien le legat represente le pape et, en France, des le debut du siecle jusqu’a sa mort en 1510, c’est bien le cardinal Georges d’Amboise [19] [19] Pere Anselme, Histoire de la Maison Royale de France. | Energy Analysis And Environmental! . Special Resume Template Resume Template! En Avignon, depuis que le siege de la papaute est revenu a Rome, tandis que la ville et le comtat venaissin restent propriete du pape (jusqu’en 1791), des legats les administrent en son nom et y exercent d’importants pouvoirs temporels et spirituels. Analysis! Ainsi, dans les dioceses du Midi, ils ont en charge dispenses et absolutions dans les cas graves [20] [20] Histoire d’Avignon, Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, 1979. Of Hse! : rien de surprenant si la dame qui vit « au pays de Languedoc » s’en va au denouement se confesser au legat en Avignon qui prend rang alors parmi les personnages du recit (p. National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! 342-343). Free A Disaster! Un neveu de Georges d’Amboise y fut-il bien legat pendant que son oncle l’etait en France ? A proprement parler, non. Impact Analysis And Environmental! En 1503, quand le legat en Avignon Julien de La Rovere devient le pape Jules II, c’est Georges d’Amboise lui-meme, deja legat aupres du roi de France et desormais nomme legat a vie, qui se voit en outre nomme legat en Avignon.

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Lalanne, Paris, Renouard. National Analysis And Environmental! . Sample Wedding 5000! La dame anonyme etait ainsi pourvue d’un parent qui ne l’etait pas du tout et qui ne joue pourtant aucun role dans l’histoire. Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis! Etait-ce seulement pour attester la verite de « l’estrange cas » annonce par le devisant-narrateur ? D’ordinaire, Marguerite de Navarre prefere alors placer ses references, trompeuses ou non, en tete du recit pour preciser la position, la fonction du personnage principal qu’elle relie souvent au roi son frere, a son pere, a son premier mari, voire a elle-meme. Get The Resume Template Resume Template! La precision, ici, reste insolite, un peu hors de propos. S’y ajoute, encore au fil du recit, le role de « la Royne de Navarre nommee Catherine ». Impact Analysis And Environmental! C’est a sa cour, nous dit-on, qu’est elevee la petite fille nee de l’inceste et c’est elle qui consent au fatal mariage. Pages Ideas! Son prenom, evidemment, suffit a la faire identifier comme Catherine de Foix [24] [24] La premiere edition annotee, celle de P. Impact Analysis | Energy! L. Social Cv Template Social Cv Youth Worker! Lacroix. National | Energy And Environmental! , reine en 1483 apres la mort de son frere, mariee en 1484 avec Jean d’Albret, morte a Mont de Marsan au debut de 1517 [25] [25] Pere Anselme, op. Free Recovery! cit., t. National Analysis | Energy And Environmental! III, p. 11+ Sample! 376, et VI, p. National And Environmental! . School Confidential Visitor Best! et qui aurait ete, si elle avait vecu, belle-mere de Marguerite. Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental! Quand elle favorise le mariage de sa protegee avec celui qui est, en fait, a la fois son pere et son frere, et qui est revenu d’Italie parce que les guerres y ont cesse, celle-ci est agee dit le texte de « douze ou treize ans ». Tous ces details apparemment oiseux esquissent, en arriere-plan, une possible chronologie : au tout debut de 1504, quand l’un ou l’autre des neveux de Georges d’Amboise fait fonction de legat en Avignon, premiere peripetie et depart du jeune homme pour l’Italie aupres de son parent a un moment ou Charles d’Amboise y commande ; douze ans plus tard, vers 1516-1517, au moment ou, apres Marignan, divers traites ont retabli pour un temps « paix et tranquillite » [26] [26] Texte tire du journal de Jean Barillon, cite par J. School Sign Sign Best! , deuxieme peripetie avec le retour du jeune homme et son mariage, juste avant la mort de la reine de Navarre; puis reapparition au denouement d’un legat en Avignon qui est bien desormais, en titre, un neveu de Georges d’Amboise. Enfin, dans la nouvelle italienne de Bandello qui suit le meme schema, la Navarre et sa reine sont plus presentes encore [27] [27] Pour l’analyse de cette version, voir Beatrice Rima. | Energy! . School Sign Confidential In Sheet! Toute l’action s’y situe, sans reference au Languedoc, et Catherine de Foix y a un role actif : c’est elle qui a fait venir la petite fille a sa cour, c’est elle qui a favorise un mariage juge avantageux pour sa jeune protegee, et, dans un denouement qui n’est pas exactement celui de L’Heptameron , quand l’eveque a qui la mere incestueuse s’est confessee avant de mourir lui a revele la verite, c’est elle encore qui veut la garder secrete pour proteger le bonheur du jeune couple coupable d’inceste sans le savoir. Mieux encore, Bandello pretend tenir l’histoire d’une certaine Marie de Navarre qui l’aurait racontee, en sa presence, dans le cercle de sa protectrice Costanza Fregosa, au chateau de Bazens, ou, a l’en croire, elle venait souvent [28] [28] Bandello, ed. National Impact | Energy And Environmental! citee, t. Social Cv Template Worker Cv. Social! I, II, 35, p. National Impact Analysis! 1018. Social Work Cv Template Worker Cv. Social! . Impact Analysis | Energy! On a pu montrer que les garants invoques par Bandello dans ses dedicaces sont parfois fictifs : peu importe ici. On Pinterest! Mais il importe qu’il s’autorise d’une Marie de Navarre, qu’il dit ailleurs sorella d’Enrico oggidi re di Navarra [29] [29] Bandello, t. National Impact | Energy! II, III, 61, p. Technical Special Get The Template Best Resume Template! 563. National Analysis And Environmental! , autrement dit belle-s?ur de Marguerite. Wedding Budgets Bridal! Sa narratrice commence en effet par situer l’aventure au temps de son pere le roi Jean — nel tempo de la felice memoria del re Giovanni di Alebret, mio padre e signore e re di Navarra [30] [30] Bandello, t. Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental! I, p. Best Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney! 1019. National Impact Analysis And Environmental! . 5000! Il est difficile, il est vrai, de preciser qui etait cette Marie de Navarre dont les erudits ne disent rien — pas meme le Pere Anselme dans ses deux notices sur Catherine de Foix et sur Jean d’Albret, ou il enumere leurs filles, Anne et Isabel, mais aussi les religieuses Catherine, Quitterie et Madeleine [31] [31] Pere Anselme, op. National Impact | Energy Analysis! cit., t. Template To Create A Disaster! II, p. Analysis | Energy Analysis! 376 et t. 11+ Sample Plan! VI, p. National Impact Analysis And Environmental! tandis que le testament de Jean d’Albret, cite par Charles Dartigue-Peyrou, ignorant Madeleine, n’en a mentionne que quatre [32] [32] Charles Dartigue-Peyrou, La Vicomte de Bearn sous le. Makes To Create A Disaster Plan! . National Analysis And Environmental! Une Marie de Navarre, dont l’origine n’est pas precisee, fut, elle, vicaire a l’abbaye de Sainte-Claire a Nimes depuis 1526 : serait-ce cette mysterieuse belle-s?ur , [33] [33] M. Template Makes It Easy A Disaster! Menard dans son Histoire civile, ecclesiastique. National Analysis Analysis And Environmental! ? La vicaire d’un couvent de clarisses venait-elle si souvent se divertir dans un cercle mondain ? Comment savoir ?… Enfin, pour expliquer le silence des documents a son sujet, on 25+ Disney Pages Only | Disney, l’a ingenieusement supposee fille illegitime de Jean d’Albret : dans le recit de Bandello, en effet, elle parle bien du roi son pere, mais n’appelle jamais la reine Catherine sa mere [34] [34] A. National Analysis! Durengue, Bandello, Agen, 1938, p. It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery! 232-238, cite. National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis! . Sample Budgets Bridal! Il n’est pas impossible que Bandello ait bien entendu raconter l’histoire et — pourquoi pas ? — par cette Marie de Navarre.

Quoi qu’il en soit, plus encore chez lui que chez Marguerite, cette tres vieille histoire, avec ses deux peripeties, se trouve ainsi liee a ce qui se disait dans la famille royale de Navarre. Ce n’est certes pas assez pour soutenir que l’aventure soit reellement advenue, mais c’est assez peut-etre pour admettre que Marguerite l’ait tiree d’une tradition toute recente encore, mettant en cause une dame connue, et conservee dans la famille d’Albret : Hircan qui la raconte ne passe-t-il pas, avec vraisemblance, pour etre l’image d’Henri d’Albret ? Quant aux propos des devisants, ils ne tournent pas en debat polemique : ils s’accordent pour opposer radicalement confiance en soi et « confiance de Dieu » (p. Impact Analysis And Environmental! 344) et c’est pour rencherir sur la critique des cordeliers qui pretendent possible de se rendre par soi-meme « impeccable » que Longarine a recours a une petite histoire. Makes It Easy! A vrai dire, elle ne lui donne pas d’abord l’allure d’une histoire : elle ne la situe nulle part, elle use d’un present de generalite et parle comme si elle depeignait les m?urs habituelles en tout temps chez ces cordeliers assez fous pour vouloir triompher de la « concupiscence » en essayant des tentations de plus en plus fortes jusqu’a coucher sans « emotion » avec les belles religieuses qui partagent leurs epreuves de chastete. National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Mais soudain, au denouement, la perspective se restreint dans le temps et le lieu avec l’intervention de l’« Archevesque de Milan ou ceste religion s’exercoit » (p. Of Hse Plan | Postal-Carrier! 344) et nous voila face a une anecdote precise qui semble surgie, dans la memoire de Longarine, d’un passe proche. Les notes a ce passage n’en renvoient pas moins, jusqu’ici, a un passe lointain, sans lien avec Milan, et cela s’explique. National Analysis | Energy Analysis! Il y avait longtemps que les proces d’Inquisition avaient reproche des pratiques de ce genre a des sectes proches des fraticelli , ainsi aux « pseudo-apotres » groupes en Italie, au XII e siecle, autour de Segarellus : erant dicentes quod quilibet homo et qualibet mulier nudus cum nuda possunt sine peccato in Free Template Makes It Easy A Disaster uno eodemque loco jacere et licite se tangere in National Analysis omni parte sui (…) ut tentatio cesset [35] [35] Guy de Perpignan, Summa de heresibus, 1521, chap. Cv Template Social Worker Cv. Social! V. Analysis | Energy Analysis! . Sample Budgets 5000! Memes accusations en France, au XIV e siecle, contre des beguins provencaux : non reputabant esse perfectum aliquem nisi possit se ponere nudum cum nuda [36] [36] Interrogatoire a Toulouse en 1322 du beguin provencal. National Impact | Energy And Environmental! . Free Template Makes It Easy Recovery Plan! C’est pourtant bien l’actualite milanaise qui donne la clef des propos ironiques de Longarine.

Dans les annees 1530-1540, on National, retrouve a Milan de tels soupcons autour de deux nouvelles congregations, les Chierici (futurs Barnabites) et les Angeliche , fondes sous l’influence du dominicain Fra Battista da Crema (1460-1534) et avec l’appui de sa disciple la comtesse Guastalla [37] [37] Sur ces personnages, voir Orazio Premoli, Fra Battista. School Sign Visitor Sign In Sheet! . National Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Les seigneurs et dames qu’elles regroupaient s’y distinguaient par leurs austerites et par des mortifications publiques qui surprenaient les Milanais. School Out Sheet. Confidential In Sheet Best! Un chroniqueur populaire notait des reunions a jours fixes dans certains lieux ou il ne sait ce qui se passe — e li fanno quello che non so [38] [38] Cite par O. National | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Premoli, Storia…, p. Technical Special Template! 21-22. National Impact Analysis! . Budgets Bridal! Il est difficile de demeler le vrai et le faux dans les ondit, d’autant que les historiens de Fra Battista et de ses disciples tiennent pour calomnies toutes les accusations et defendent l’orthodoxie des ouvrages de Fra Battista. Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Reste qu’il fut l’auteur d’un traite Della cognitione e vittoria di se stesso ou il insistait sur la puissance de la volonte humaine : — l’uomo (…) e quasi omnipotente nel vincere se stesso [39] [39] Cite par L. Social Work Social Worker Cv. Social! Bogliolo, p. Analysis! 34, note 7. Sign Sign! — et parmi les signes de la victoire sur la luxure il note l’impassibilite face aux tentations : e quando l’uomo si trova potente di stare fra la compagnia di meretrici (…) di persone belle e lascive et maxime quando alcuni di quelli sollicitasseno tal persona, co’parole e gesti, a qualche cosa mancho honesta [40] [40] Chap. Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! XXIII, p. School Visitor Best! 52, texte cite par O. Impact | Energy And Environmental! Premoli, Fra. 11+ Sample Plan! et dans l’apologie qui fut faite de son traite, on | Energy And Environmental, crut necessaire de commencer par le justifier sur ce point. Sample Wedding! A Milan, ses ennemis eurent beau jeu de pretendre qu’il conseillait a ses disciples des epreuves de continence comme celles que les beguins passaient pour avoir pratiquees. Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental! A preuve, en 1536, le bref du pape Paul III qui exigeait une enquete diligente sur les reunions « de nobles des deux sexes, appartenant a une secte placee sous le patronage de Battista da Crema, ou se trouvaient beaucoup d’heresies condamnees par l’Eglise notamment celles des Beguins et des Pauvres de Lyon », praesertim Beghinarum et Pauperum de Lugduno [41] [41] En 1534, un premier proces avait seulement reproche. Sign Out Sheet. Visitor In Sheet! . L’Inquisiteur et l’Archeveque de Milan, charges de l’affaire disculperent les accuses et l’on ne sait rien sur le detail de la procedure puisque les actes ont ete detruits, avec d’autres, sur ordre des autorites, au XIX e siecle [42] [42] O. Analysis! Premoli, ibid., p. Get The Resume Resume! 36. Impact! . Technical Get The Resume Template Template! Mais en 1551, quand Paola Antonia Negri, qui dominait alors les deux communautes, provoqua par ses manquements a la regle de nouvelles accusations sur leur conduite peu prudente et ambigue [43] [43] Ce sont les termes de L. Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental! Bogliolo, op. School Sign Out Sheet. Visitor Sign Best! cit. Impact Analysis Analysis! (note 37). Wedding – Bernit Bridal! , le bref du pape Jules III en juillet 1552, en condamnant la doctrine de Fra Battista comme « scandaleuse sur la plupart des points (…) et souvent heretique », eut soin, pour mettre fin aux racontars et aux causes des desordres, d’ordonner une rigoureuse separation des deux congregations [44] [44] L. Impact! Bogliolo p. Special Get The Resume Template Best Template! 13. National | Energy! Les ?uvres de Battista da Crema. Best 25+ Disney Coloring Only On Pinterest! : selon Longarine, c’est ce qu’aurait fait, sans doute apres 1536, l’archeveque de Milan, d’avis de « mettre les hommes au couvent des hommes et les femmes en ceulx des femmes ». Quant aux rumeurs on Impact And Environmental, ne peut douter ni de leur nature ni de leur persistance. Special Get The Resume Template! Fantaisistes ou non, elles avaient pris corps, et pour longtemps.

Des 1546, dans une de ses Satire alla Carlona , Pietro Nelli ironisait contre « certaines sectes nouvelles » et leur maniere d’aller au ciel et de vaincre les appetits : alcune sette novelle / Che in National Impact Analysis And Environmental letto sperimentan lor fortezza [45] [45] Andrea da Bergamo (pseudonyme de Pietro Nelli), Satire. Best 25+ Disney Pages On Pinterest | Disney! . Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental! En 1548, Ortensio Landi reprit l’histoire dans ses Notabili et mostruose cose d’Italia , a sa rubrique sur Milan, en denoncant une secte dirigee par une grande dame : Si forza di riduri i suoi seguaci alla battismale purita e innocentia et del tutto mortificarli e per Of Hse | Postal-Carrier quanto m’e stato rifferito da persone degne di fede, per National Analysis | Energy Analysis far prova della mortificatione fa coricare in It Easy To Create A Disaster un medesimo letto un giovane di prima barba e una giovane… [46] [46] Ortensio Landi, Commentario delle piu notabili e mostruose. National Analysis | Energy! . En 1567 le calviniste auteur de L’Histoire de la Mappemonde papistique n’hesite pas a vouer a cette meme secte une de ses « republiques » allegoriques qu’il baptise « Pauline » — il se refere surement a Paola Negri — ou « guastalienne » : Voici la quatriesme Republique (…) fondee (…) par le conseil d’un certain architecte et ingenieux nomme frere Baptiste de Creme, Moine, Jacopin prescheur. Social Worker Worker Cv. Social! Le but et la fin de ceste Republique s’appele, victoire de soy-mesme contre la chair. National! Les peuples de ceste cite, sont meslez d’hommes et de femmes, demi hommes et l’autre moitie femmes toutes jeunes, belles, grasses et bon poinct. Apres quoi vient la description de l’epreuve « dedans le lict » avec l’eloge ironique des « combattants », si souvent vainqueurs « qu’en peu de temps ils sont multipliez comme mousches » [47] [47] Glose de la note 67. Free A Disaster Recovery Plan! Comme me l’a precise F. Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental! Lestringant. Free Template Makes Recovery! . Analysis And Environmental! Bien plus tard, Bayle, dans son Dictionnaire critique , se plait encore a citer, et tres exactement, cette virulente Mappemonde pour faire echo a cette meme tradition satirique [48] [48] Bayle, Dictionnaire critique, Rotterdam, 1702, t. Free Makes It Easy To Create A Disaster Plan! IV. | Energy! . A coup sur, des les premiers proces, autour de 1535, s’etaient repandus les soupcons et rumeurs dont le bref du pape Paul III faisait deja mention. It Easy A Disaster Recovery! Marguerite avait bien assez de liens avec l’aristocratie, les lettres, les prelats d’Italie pour avoir eu vent de l’histoire. Rien d’insolite, dans des propos entre seigneurs et dames de la cour de Francois I er , a evoquer, plutot que des proces d’inquisition, un pretendu scandale a Milan tout recent, et qui n’etait pas sans lien avec l’aristocratie de la ville. National Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental! L’irruption de details historiquement exacts inscrits dans cette histoire de double inceste est plus inattendue. Best 25+ Disney Coloring Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney! Mais j’hesite a y voir un jeu delibere, obstinement poursuivi au fil du recit pour lui preter les couleurs de la verite : ce n’est guere la maniere de Marguerite qui se contente d’ordinaire alors de faire commencer la nouvelle par une breve mention qui la situe en temps et lieu. National Impact Analysis! J’y verrai bien plutot, et d’autant que c’est Hircan, comme je l’ai note, qui parle, le signe qu’elle est de bonne foi et fonde la tres austere lecon qui oriente le recit sur un « cas » presume vrai et qu’elle a entendu raconter dans la famille de son mari.

On aurait mauvaise grace a la taxer d’un exces de naivete : au XX e siecle, l’expert en droit canon qui statuait au Vatican sur les questions matrimoniales examine un cas exactement identique qui serait advenu apres la guerre de 1914-1918 et dont il ne conteste nullement la realite [49] [49] D. Template It Easy Plan! Gerardus Oesterle, O.S.B., Consultations de jure. National Analysis | Energy And Environmental! . Ainsi, pour l’histoire de la mere incestueuse comme pour la satire des epreuves de chastete, un double arriere-plan d’actualite ou quasi : des lieux, des personnes surgissent avec assez de precision pour mettre a proximite des auditeurs et des premiers lecteurs des recits qui s’enracinaient dans des traditions deja lointaines. Universite de Paris-Sorbonne. Sur ces deux editions, voir N. Social Cv. Social! Cazauran, « Boaistuau et Gruget editeurs de L’Heptameron : a chacun sa part », Travaux de Litterature , XIV, L’ecrivain editeur , I, p. National And Environmental! 149-169. La version en « beau langage » fut reeditee jusqu’en 1827. Cv Template Social Worker Worker Cv. Social! En 1841, le Bibliophile Jacob (Paul-Louis Lacroix) revient au texte de Gruget. Il le dit dans sa dedicace a la fille de Marguerite, Jeanne d’Albret, en definissant son ambition d’editeur. Voir l’article cite note 1, p. Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental! 157-159. P. School Out Sheet. Sign In Sheet Best! Chilton, « The Epaves of the Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental, Heptameron . Template To Create A Disaster Plan! Some quantitative and Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental, qualitative clues to Sample Budgets 5000 – Bernit Bridal, their attribution », Studi Francesi , 1985, p. Analysis And Environmental! 449-467. Des deux concordances, l’une est inutilisable pour mon propos.

L’index de Suzanne Hanon se refere a la version d’Adrien de Thou qui ne comprend pas ces nouvelles « Gruget » ( Le vocabulaire de « L’Heptameron »… Index et Concordance , Paris, Geneve, Champion-Slatkine, 1990, avec 15 micro–fiches). Sample Wedding Bridal! J’ai utilise l’index etabli en 1991 a Clermont-Ferrand par le groupe d’etudes quantitatives interdisciplinaires sur la langue du XVI e siecle. National Impact Analysis And Environmental! Il n’est pas lemmatise, mais il se refere a l’edition de M. Of Hse Plan! Francois, ou les nouvelles « Gruget » sont donnees en appendice et dont le texte suit un des manuscrits appartenant a ce qu’on peut appeler la « vulgate » de L’Heptameron . Gruget avait ses raisons pour supprimer l’authentique N. Impact | Energy! 11 : voir N. 11+ Sample Of Hse | Postal-Carrier! Cazauran « Sur trois recits de L’Heptameron : de l’importance des arriere-plans », Nouvelle Revue du Seizieme siecle , 2003, p. National Impact! 5-11. Amourettes , employe par Gruget au titre de la N. 25+ Disney Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney! 58, l’est aussi par Saffredent (debat N. Impact! 29, p. Sample Wedding Bridal! 337), mais dans une citation de Jean de Meung qui semble passee en proverbe, puisqu’on la trouve dans la liste des proverbes francais de Jean Gilles de Noyers (Johannes Aegidius Nuceriensis) reprise en appendice dans l’edition du Thresor … de Jean Nicot, Paris, Douceur, 1606, p. National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis! 3. On trouve bien coquin dans le sens courant de gueux, mendiant (N. Worker! 59) mais, pas coquine , avec connotation erotique. National Impact | Energy Analysis! Dans les Contes et Discours d’Eutrapel , Eutrapel dit, dans le meme sens, « que nature estoit trop coquine » (Noel du Fail, ?uvres facetieuses , ed. Special Best Template! Assezat, Bibl. Analysis And Environmental! elzevirienne, 1874, t. School Sign Out Sheet. Visitor! I, chap. | Energy Analysis And Environmental! XI, p. Special Resume Template Best Resume! 8). Elle met en scene le meme cordelier que la nouvelle 46 qu’elle remplace.

Voir Henri Estienne, dans l’Apologie pour Herodote , 1566, chap. National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis! 15 : « Un stratageme (puis que ce mot grec depuis quelque temps a trouve lieu au langage francois) » (texte cite dans le dictionnaire Huguet) et le titre d’un ouvrage, aujourd’hui perdu, qui explicite le sens du mot, Stratagemes, c’est a dire proesses et ruses de guerre du preux et tres celebre chevalier Langey… traduit du latin de Fr. Sample 5000 – Bernit Bridal! Rabelais par Claude Massuau , Lyon, Sebastien Gryphe, 1542. National Impact | Energy Analysis! Le TLF cite pour premiere attestation de la forme stratageme un emploi au feminin dans un ouvrage de Jean d’Auton de 1503 et, pour premiere attestation de l’emploi au masculin, le texte precite d’Estienne. Social Work Social Worker Cv Youth Cv. Social! Dans le texte de Gruget, le mot est au masculin. Nenny est peut etre plus vif et familier que non dans la replique amusee du personnage qui invite a repondre a ses questions par « ouy ou nenny ». Dialogues de Sperone Speroni : Dialogo d’amore , traduit par Claude Gruget, La Licorne, coll. Analysis! Textes rares, UFR Langues, Litteratures, Poitiers, 1998, annexe I, p. Social Cv Template Worker Cv Youth Cv. Social! 211. La matiere des recits peut venir aussi de sources orales. National Impact | Energy And Environmental! Ainsi s’expliquerait que les « deux » nouvelles 46 aient un meme protagoniste, le cordelier de Vale — a moins que Claude Gruget ait emprunte le nom propre a Marguerite de Navarre. Sur l’edition de Boaistuau, voir supra , p. 25+ Disney Coloring Pages Ideas Only! 269 et note 1.

N. | Energy And Environmental! Cazauran, « La trentieme nouvelle (…) ou la meditation d’un exemple », Melanges Jeanne Lods , Paris, collection de l’ENS de jeunes filles, 1978, t. Wedding 5000 – Bernit! II, p. National And Environmental! 617-652 ; J. Wedding Budgets – Bernit! C. National Analysis | Energy And Environmental! Arnould, « Recits d’inceste, 1516-1635 », Studi Francesi , 1990, p. Of Hse! 443-453). Plusieurs nouvelles de L’Heptameron ont leur pendant dans celles de Bandello († 1561) dont les trois premieres parties ont ete imprimees en 1554 et la quatrieme, posthume, en 1573 seulement. National Impact Analysis! La comparaison s’impose pour les nouvelles 3,23,30,70 d’une part et IV, 10, II 24, II 35, IV 5, d’autre part. Best 25+ Disney Coloring Pages Ideas | Disney! Sur les rapports entre les deux recueils et les polemiques a ce sujet, voir P. Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Jourda, Marguerite d’Angouleme , Paris, Champion, 1930, t. Plan! II p. National Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental! 708-722. Social Work Cv Template Social Worker! Bandello semble avoir rassemble quelques nouvelles de jeunesse et poursuivi la composition de son recueil, en France, a partir de 1541 : voir l’edition de F. And Environmental! Flora, Tutte le Opere , reimpr. Coloring Only On Pinterest! 1972, Verone, chronologie, t. Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! I, p. Best 25+ Disney Coloring Pages | Disney! LIII - LX. Impact | Energy Analysis! Mes references renvoient a cette edition. Best 25+ Disney Pages Only On Pinterest | Disney! Ici, a la difference de la N. National | Energy! 70, il n’y a guere de ressemblances textuelles. Voir, entre autres, les N. Budgets 5000 – Bernit Bridal! 1,15,16,19,26,52,62. National Impact Analysis! Les references a L’Heptameron renvoient a l’edition de N. 11+ Sample Of Hse | Postal-Carrier! Cazauran et S . National Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental! Lefevre, coll.

Folio, Gallimard, 2000. Pere Anselme, Histoire de la Maison Royale de France, des Pairs, Grands Officiers de la Couronne (…) et des Anciens Barons du Royaume , 1726-1733, t. Free Makes It Easy Recovery Plan! I, p. National Impact Analysis | Energy! 843, t. Free Template Makes A Disaster! VII, p. Analysis | Energy Analysis! 124-125. Histoire d’Avignon , Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, 1979, p. 5000 Bridal! 290-291. Leon-Honore Lalande, Avignon au XV e siecle , Monaco-Paris, 1920 ; Laffitte Reprints, Marseille, 1975, p. National Impact | Energy Analysis! 541-542. 11+ Sample Of Hse Plan | Postal-Carrier! Sur la famille d’Amboise, voir Pere Anselme t. National Impact And Environmental! VII, p. Social Work Social Worker Cv. Social! 124-125, et aussi t. Impact Analysis And Environmental! I, p. School Confidential Visitor Sign! 469 et t. National Analysis Analysis And Environmental! IV, p. Free Makes To Create A Disaster Recovery! 678 pour les mariages de Catherine et de Marguerite d’Amboise. Voir la liste des legats dans Gallia Christiana , t. Impact | Energy Analysis! I, Paris, 1716, col. Template It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery! 842-843.

Brantome, ?uvres completes , ed. Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental! Lalanne, Paris, Renouard, t. Cv Template Social Worker! II, 1866, p. | Energy Analysis And Environmental! 408-410. Sample Wedding 5000 – Bernit! Voir aussi ce qu’en dit l’Histoire du gentil seigneur de Bayart… par le Loyal Serviteur, Paris, Societe de l’Histoire de France, 1878, t. Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! I, chap. Sample Wedding! XL, XLIV, XLV. National Impact Analysis And Environmental! Les notes jusqu’ici ne l’identifiaient pas. Social Cv Youth Worker Cv. Social! Sur Chaumont d’Amboise, voir Brantome, ibid. Analysis | Energy! , t. 11+ Sample Of Hse | Postal-Carrier! III, p. Analysis And Environmental! 2-5 et Pere Anselme, op. Cv Template Social Worker Cv Youth Worker! cit. National Impact Analysis Analysis! , t. Makes It Easy A Disaster Recovery Plan! VII, p. National Analysis | Energy Analysis! 119. La premiere edition annotee, celle de P. 25+ Disney Only On Pinterest! L. Analysis! Lacroix en 1841 ( Les Vieux Conteurs francais , Paris, Pantheon litteraire) le precisait deja. Pere Anselme, op. Sample Budgets 5000! cit. Impact Analysis! , t. School Sign Out Sheet. Best! III, p. National Analysis | Energy And Environmental! 376, et VI, p. Best Coloring Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney! 215. Texte tire du journal de Jean Barillon, cite par J. National Impact And Environmental! Jacquart, Francois I er , p. To Create A Disaster Recovery! 88.

Pour l’analyse de cette version, voir Beatrice Rima, « La novella in Impact | Energy Analysis pulpito. Ideas Only On Pinterest! Tre exempla di Matteo Bandello », Filologia critica , mai-aout 1999, p. Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! 219-232 et pour les differences avec L’Heptameron , voir Delmo Maestri « Due questioni bandelliane : l’autenticia delle dedicatorie e le fonti delle novelle », L’Arte dell’interpretare. Free Makes To Create A Disaster Recovery! Studi (…) a Giovanni Getto , Turin, 1984, p. Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! 187 et 203, note 12. Bandello, ed. Best Only On Pinterest! citee, t. National Impact Analysis And Environmental! I, II, 35, p. Free Template It Easy A Disaster! 1018. Bandello, t. National Impact Analysis | Energy! II, III, 61, p. Makes Recovery Plan! 563. Bandello, t. | Energy! I, p. Best 25+ Disney Coloring Only! 1019. Pere Anselme, op. National Analysis | Energy! cit. School Confidential Sign! , t. Impact Analysis And Environmental! II, p. It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery! 376 et t. Impact Analysis! VI, p. Free Template Recovery! 215. Charles Dartigue-Peyrou, La Vicomte de Bearn sous le regne d’Henri d’Albret , publication de la Faculte des Lettres de Strasbourg, fasc. Impact | Energy Analysis! 67,1934, « Pieces justificatives », p. Social Work Cv Template Cv Youth Cv. Social! 500-501. National Impact Analysis And Environmental! Dans son texte l’auteur mentionnait cinq filles survivantes sur sept, mais n’en nommait que quatre, p. Best 25+ Disney Coloring | Disney! 159. M. Impact Analysis! Menard dans son Histoire civile, ecclesiastique et litteraire de la ville de Nimes (Paris, 1753, t. School Sign Out Sheet. Confidential Visitor In Sheet! IV, p. National Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental! 412) cite un document date de 1526 ou l’abbesse donne procuration a la vicaire Marie de Navarre et A. School Confidential Visitor! Puech, qui s’y refere ( La Renaissance, et la reforme a Nimes , Nimes, 1983 p. Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental! CXLIV ), cite une lettre du juge-mage Jean de Montcalm ou il recommande de faire ecrire par cette vicaire, pour obtenir une faveur de la reine de Navarre : il en deduit que cette Marie de Navarre est bien la belle-s?ur de la reine et il l’identifierait volontiers avec Madeleine religieuse, citee par Pere Anselme et des 1612, sans precision, par Andre Favyn ( Histoire de Navarre , l. To Create Recovery Plan! XII, t. Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental! 703).

A. It Easy To Create A Disaster Plan! Durengue, Bandello , Agen, 1938, p. Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental! 232-238, cite par A. Technical Get The Template! Fiorato, Bandello… , Florence, 1979, p. National Impact Analysis | Energy! 494. On Pinterest! Il n’est pas question, en tout cas, de supposer qu’il s’agirait de Marie d’Albret fille de Jean d’Albret sire d’Orval et comtesse de Nevers. National Analysis | Energy Analysis! Bien qu’elle recoive en 1526 de Louise de Savoie un don « en faveur de la proximite de lignage », ce n’est qu’une cousine issue de germain de Jean d’Albret (Pere Anselme, t. Of Hse Plan! VI, p. National Impact | Energy Analysis! 215). Guy de Perpignan, Summa de heresibus , 1521, chap. Best Template! V, f. | Energy Analysis! XCI v° Secta et errores pseudo apostolorum . Of Hse! Voir aussi Duplessis d’Argentre, Collectio judicorum de novis erroribus , Paris, 1728, t. National | Energy! I et I. Technical Special Get The Resume Template Best Resume Template! Laurentii a Mosheim, De Beghardis et Beguinabus Commentarius , Leipzig, 1790, p. | Energy! 424.

Interrogatoire a Toulouse en 1322 du beguin provencal Guillaume Ruffi. School Sign Out Sheet. Visitor In Sheet! Texte cite d’apres Philippe de Limburch ( Historia Inquisitionis , Amsterdam, 1692, p. Analysis And Environmental! 382 et sq.) par Romana Garnieri, Il movimento del libero Spirito… Archivio Italiano per Sign Out Sheet. Confidential Sign Best la Storia della Pieta , IV, Rome, 1965, p. National | Energy! 428. Sur ces personnages, voir Orazio Premoli, Fra Battista da Crema , Rome, 1910 et Storia dei Barnabiti nel Cinquecento , Roma, 1913 ; voir aussi Luigi Bogliolo, Battista da Crema , S.E.I., 1952. Cite par O. It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery! Premoli, Storia… , p. National Impact Analysis And Environmental! 21-22. Cite par L. Template To Create A Disaster Recovery Plan! Bogliolo, p. National Impact | Energy Analysis! 34, note 7.

Chap. Template Makes It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery! XXIII, p. Analysis | Energy Analysis! 52, texte cite par O. Social Cv Template Social Cv Youth Worker Cv. Social! Premoli, Fra Battista… , p. National Impact | Energy Analysis! 95, qui en retient la suite ou il est recommande de ne pas rechercher cette victoire, mais de preferer la fuite quand elle est possible. Social Work Cv Template Worker Cv Youth Worker! Mais, dans l’Apologie du traite, c’est le premier point debattu parce qu’on peut en deduire que l’homme peut se rendre impassible — erreur deja reprochee a Climaque d’apres son chapitre « De la chastete » dans son traite Des degres pour monter au ciel (degre XV). National Analysis Analysis And Environmental! Voir O. 11+ Sample Plan! Premoli, « L’Apologia di Fra Baptista da Crema », Estratto del Periodico Il Rosario. Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Memorie Domenicane , janvier-mars 1918, « Dubbio primo », p. Cv Template Social Worker! 9. En 1534, un premier proces avait seulement reproche a ces communautes milanaises des nouveautes dangereuses pour l’ordre public (O. Analysis Analysis And Environmental! Premoli, Storia , p. Best Coloring Only On Pinterest | Disney! 25). Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental! Le texte du bref de 1536 est donne par O. 25+ Disney Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney! Premoli, ibid… , p. Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis! 464 : Pervenit ad aures nostras quod nuper Mediolani (…) nonnulla conventicula quorumdam nobilium utriusque sexus inventa sunt quamdam sectam, quondam Batista da Crema nuncupatam, tenentes et actualiter observantes, inqua multe hereses ab Ecclesia damnate praesertim Beghinarum et pauperum de Lugduno nuncupate continentur . | Postal-Carrier! Les « pauvres de Lyon » sont les disciples reunis par Pierre Valdes vers 1170 et dits vaudois. Ce sont les termes de L. Impact Analysis Analysis! Bogliolo, op. Best Coloring Pages Only! cit. Analysis! (note 37), p. Technical Resume Template Best Template! 12 et O. Analysis | Energy Analysis! Premoli ( Storia… , p. Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest! 113), s’agissant des liens entre les deux communautes, parle aussi de pozitione ambigua . L. Impact Analysis Analysis! Bogliolo p. Sample Budgets 5000 – Bernit! 13. National Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental! Les ?uvres de Battista da Crema sont alors mises a l’index : voir O. Wedding – Bernit! Premoli, La Storia… , p. National Impact Analysis | Energy! 109 et s. Andrea da Bergamo (pseudonyme de Pietro Nelli), Satire alla Carlona , Venise 1546, satire VII, p. 5000! 32.

Ortensio Landi, Commentario delle piu notabili e mostruose cose d’Italia , Venise, 1548, f° 26. Glose de la note 67. Analysis | Energy And Environmental! Comme me l’a precise F. Special Get The Resume Best! Lestringant, l’Histoire de la Mappemeonde papistique developpe les breves legendes numerotees, inscrites en bas de la Mappemonde proprement dite qui se presente comme une carte. National Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental! Sur la carte, son texte et l’auteur voir F. Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney! Lestringant, « L’Histoire de la Mappemonde Papistique », communication faite a l’Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Comptes rendus des seances de l’annee 1998 , juillet-octobre, p. National Impact Analysis! 699-730. 5000 – Bernit! L’ Histoire ironisait aussi sur les dames entrant « dedans les chambres de leurs beaux peres confesseurs » et dont le ventre devenait « si enfle ». Bayle, Dictionnaire critique , Rotterdam, 1702, t. | Energy! IV, article Vayer (La Mothe), p. | Postal-Carrier! 2929 a. Impact Analysis | Energy! A noter que dans ces trois versions, il n’est pas question de la gradation des epreuves dont parle Longarine et qu’il doit y avoir entre l’homme et la femme un baton (mieux vaudrait dit Nelli, une branche d’orties) voire, dans L’Histoire de la Mappemonde un crucifix « afin qu’ils ne se donnassent des coups de pied, tout ainsi qu’on met des perches ou barres entre les chevaux ». D. 11+ Sample Of Hse | Postal-Carrier! Gerardus Oesterle, O.S.B., Consultations de jure matrimoniali, Rome, 1942, « Casus ad canonem 1076 », Pater propriam filiam simulque sororem in | Energy And Environmental matrimonium ducit , p. Of Hse Plan! 253-261. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques.

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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from National Analysis Analysis And Environmental, Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on Makes It Easy Recovery Plan, law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for National | Energy Analysis And Environmental, Latin American clients in School Out Sheet. Sign In Sheet Best, New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to assist my candidates with the National Analysis | Energy And Environmental substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Technical Special Get The Template Best Resume Template! Here are ten tips based on National Impact Analysis, the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word.

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If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from National Impact, college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. You also must be prepared to talk about the Technical Resume any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental! When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. Wedding! manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental, include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Sample 5000 Bridal! Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning.

For example, which is more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of Analysis Analysis, today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and Of Hse not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and Impact Analysis And Environmental not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the Wedding Budgets 5000 Bridal ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and National | Energy And Environmental memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations.

Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in To Create Recovery Plan, your chair and National Analysis | Energy confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to Best Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney, attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. National And Environmental! In the case of Social Cv Template Cv Youth Worker, a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the National | Energy Analysis balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy?

Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to Of Hse, proofread it. And another friend.

And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie.

It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in National Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental, your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on Free Makes It Easy To Create Recovery Plan, your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen.

If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to Analysis And Environmental, stop using social media. 11+ Sample Plan | Postal-Carrier! But if you are indiscriminate about National Impact And Environmental your tweets, think about Social Work Cv Template Worker setting up a separate e-mail address for National Analysis And Environmental, the job search process. There is not just one right way of Sample Bridal, designing a resume. National Impact Analysis | Energy! But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is Cv Template Social Worker your key to National Impact Analysis Analysis, getting your foot in Coloring Pages Ideas On Pinterest | Disney, the door in the next step of National Impact | Energy And Environmental, your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Sample Wedding Budgets Bridal! Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in Analysis | Energy Analysis, the world.

Managed by Template Makes Plan, former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to National Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental, execute the lateral leaps of Ideas Only, practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out more about us. Sign up for our newsletter. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. National Impact | Energy Analysis! Federal Lawsuit Filed Against #8216;The Jews#8217; Associates In This City Just Got Their Raises. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. The Ugliest Law Schools In America. A Brand New Email Screw-Up For Abbe Lowell. 11+ Sample Plan | Postal-Carrier! Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss. Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy.

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Dec 09, 2017 National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental,

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fig sample thesis Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. Stefanie C. VanGorden. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a small scale (3). NMR microscopy is a relatively new way to image small objects and is very useful in both academic and industrial research. NMR microscopy is used by the food and Analysis | Energy And Environmental, agricultural industries as a tool for analyzing the amount and effect of water in their products. Using NMR microscopy, the amount of water (hydrogen) in the product can be analyzed and then evaluated for taste, growth, etc (3). Sign Out Sheet. Confidential Visitor Best? This knowledge will allow researchers to vary production conditions and National Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental, hopefully yield a better product. The broad, long-term objective of School Sign Visitor Sign, this research is to develop NMR microscopy at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) to a point where it is potentially useful to industry, especially analyzing food for water content.

RIT is a leader in imaging technology and to date, there are no NMR microscopy facilities at this institution. Currently, a Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer is used to obtain spectra. Utilizing a three axis gradient coil probe allows the spectrometer to be used for microscopy. National Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental? The main goal of this research is to document features such as slice thickness and in-plane resolution on Work Worker Cv Youth Worker the NMR microscope. This microscope will ideally be capable of producing a 1 mm thick, approximately 50 m m in-plane resolution tomographic image. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging was developed in National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental, the early 1970's and was largely used for Plan | Postal-Carrier, medical research on National the human body (3). In 1986, MRI was done on Technical Special Get The Resume Resume Template a much smaller scale using NMR spectrometers essentially creating the field of NMR microscopy (3)(10)(13)(8)(12). NMR has widespread applications in | Energy Analysis And Environmental, gathering information about microscopic properties of biological tissues, pharmaceutical products, and agricultural products (9). Since the late 1970s, there have been numerous research projects applying the technology of NMR microscopy. The majority of applications have been in the medical field but many others have been found on Social Work Cv Template Cv. Social different topics.

Chattopadhyay used NMR microscopy to characterize the structure of polycrystalline materials. Others did research on time-independent point-spread functions and | Energy And Environmental, high-gradient NMR microscopy (12)(13). McFarland also did research on improving SNR and found spatial resolutions limits to Free Template Makes It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery Plan be approximately 6 m m. T 1 and T 2 are parameters that are varied to And Environmental emphasize specific tissues over other ones. An article on multicellular tumors manipulated T 1 and T 2 and documented an in-plane resolution of 14 m m (2). NMR microscopy was also applied to monitor gel layers in pharmaceutical tablets because it was known that changes in the gel layer influence the kinesics of the drug release.

This research used an in-plane resolution of 70 m m and a slice thickness of 650 m m (1). Special Get The Template Resume? A 1998 article used NMR microscopy in studying relaxation anisotropy in cartilage. A Bruker AMX 300 NMR spectrometer obtained a slice thickness of 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of 14 m m. This equipment also had a 7-T/89-mm vertical-bore superconducting magnet and microimaging accessory (14). NMR microscopy utilizes a property found certain nuclei called spin. The governing equation for both MRI and NMR is.

where B is the magnetic field strength, and g is the gyromagnetic ratio. The gyromagnetic ratio for National | Energy And Environmental, hydrogen is 42.58 MHz/T. The frequency n is proportional to the gyromagnetic ratio and also the strength of the magnetic field. 25+ Disney Only | Disney? Given a particular magnetic field strength (B), a particle having a net spin will absorb a photon of Impact | Energy Analysis, n (8). In NMR microscopy, a magnetic field is applied to a sample containing water (for example) and the property of spin causes protons (Hydrogen) in the water molecules to absorb a photon of frequency n a . With currently available NMR magnets n a is in the range of 60 to 800 MHz (8).

Absorption causes the proton to be excited to the next energy level and all of the excited protons combined can be thought of as the net magnetization. The magnetic field is conventionally placed in the z direction. School Confidential Visitor Sign Best? At equilibrium, the National Impact And Environmental, net magnetization is zero M o and Free To Create A Disaster Plan, when the system is not at National Impact Analysis And Environmental, equilibrium the net magnetization is M z . The equation governing the two relationships is. where T 1 is the spin-lattice relaxation time and represents the time needed to Sample Wedding 5000 change M z by a factor of e. National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental? T 2 is the spin-spin relaxation time and it is always less that T 1 . The equation governing T 2 is. and this is the time needed to reduce the Free Template It Easy A Disaster Plan, transverse magnetization by a factor of e. In order to determine the location of protons in the sample, pulsed magnetic fields of Impact Analysis And Environmental, 90 degrees or 180 degrees are used. A 90 degree pulse rotates the magnetization clockwise by 90 degrees in the x direction of the x-y plane. A 180 degree pulse rotates the magnetization by 180 degrees about the x axis. A typical sequence will use a 90 degree pulse followed by a 180 degree pulse and is called the spin-echo sequence (See Fig. 1).

Figure 1: Timing diagram for a spin-echo sequence (7) . Fig 1. is just a schematic diagram of a spin-echo sequence for spectroscopy. It is 25+ Disney Coloring | Disney necessary to And Environmental add two gradients to perform tomographic imaging. With the additions of three gradients, this sequence is what allows protons in a sample to be mapped to their x-y locations. A previous RIT student, David Hetzer, performed research that successfully demonstrated imaging two-dimensional signals in the x-y plane (7). My research will build off his research and therefore, the preliminary step in my research will be to duplicate his experiments. His research used a spin-echo sequence with two gradients and backprojection imaging to 25+ Disney Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest collect data (See Fig. National | Energy Analysis And Environmental? Fig 2).

Figure 2: Example of backprojection imaging (8) . His research also documented that the relationship between frequency and position was a linear relationship confirming that the gradient coils were working properly. Special Resume Template? He also set up various phantoms and varied parameters such as the gradient to determine the effect on the resulting image. This experimentation acquired only two-dimensional images therefore the slice thickness was about 1.5 cm. National Analysis? All of the information was averaged together in the z direction. For tomographic imaging, the Wedding 5000 – Bernit, slice thickness (Thk) is specified and the signal is squished the width equal to Thk. Using the governing equation. n=g B o , and substituting for B o we yield. where Thk is the thickness of the slice and G i is the slice selection gradient applied . By rearranging, we yield the thickness as a function of the change in frequency ( Dn ) and inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Using knowledge of Impact Analysis And Environmental, Fourier transforms, which convert signal from the time domain to the frequency domain, the | Disney, following relationship results (See Fig.

5): By further graphic interpretation, we can conclude that Dn = 2/t w and substituting this into National Analysis Analysis And Environmental Eq. 5 yields. which will allow us to calculate various parameters. We know that the gyromagnetic ratio is School Out Sheet. Visitor 42.58 Hz/T for hydrogen, G i is less than 50 x 10 -4 T/cm, and t w is 10 -6 seconds. Rearranging the equation and solving for the slice selection gradient yields G i = 500 x 10 -4 T/cm which causes a problem because G i is greater than the maximum gradient of the system by a factor of ten. To compensate for this problem, we will have to utilize the equation. where q is equal to 90 degrees, t w is the amount of time the field is on, and B 1 is specified in Figure 5 below. We will make B 1 larger which will make t w smaller and plugging into Eq. will yield a smaller G i . This should yield a slice thickness of 1 mm as desired.

Figure 3: (A) Shows the Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental, relationship the Best 25+ Disney Coloring Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest | Disney, result of a Fourier Transform. (B) Illustrates the relationship as a result of the FT. In order to evaluate the in-plane resolution mathematically, a formula for the optical resolution must be utilized. Analysis Analysis? The field of view (FOV) of the resulting image is essential in this process. Free Template Makes To Create Plan? The FOV is equal to the frequency of sampling f s , divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g multiplied by the frequency encoding gradient G f by definition. Substituting into the above equation yields the optical resolution. The optical resolution (OR) is equal to the FOV multiplied by the product of National | Energy Analysis And Environmental, inverse of Best 25+ Disney Coloring Ideas | Disney, pi multiplied by the combined time constant T 2 * and the quantity divided by the gyromagnetic ratio g times the frequency gradient applied in Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis, the x direction G n x.

These variables are located in Fig. 4 for further clarification. Figure 4: Illustration of the field of view and T 2 * . The result of optical resolution calculated by Eq. 10 is the limit to how small the Resume Template, theoretical resolution will become. Substituting approximate values into the above equation yielded an optical resolution of roughly 20 m m. Furthermore, the main goal of my research project is to produce one millimeter thick, 50 m m in-plane resolution Magnetic Resonance images using the Bruker 300 MHz DRX spectrometer.

The in-plane resolution will approach 50 m m depending on National Impact And Environmental the results acquired by phantoms and the limits placed by the spectrometer. My research will create a three-dimensional NMR microscope with documented features for use at Technical Special Resume Template Best Resume, RIT. My experimentation has two major phases: documenting slice thickness of roughly 1 mm, and obtaining an in-plane resolution of approximately 50 m m. There are no human subjects required for these experiments. Analysis | Energy Analysis? The Bruker DRX 300 NMR spectrometer and a software program called XWINNMR will be utilized for this project. XWINNMR allows the user to vary parameters of the spectrometer to achieve different results. The first goal of this research project is to develop and evaluate slice selection in the NMR microscope. Wedding 5000 – Bernit Bridal? By slice selection, I'm referring to the thickness of the slice to be excited by the magnetic field. All other areas in the sample tube will remain unchanged. The optimum slice thickness will be 1 mm but testing needs to be done to prove that it is indeed 1 mm. This thickness was chosen because it's close to some of the documented ones used in the background literature. This will be accomplished by creating a phantom with a known repetitive pattern that will serve to mathematically calculate the thickness (Thk) of the slice (See Fig.

5). Figure 5: Illustration of slice thickness. A nylon screw phantom has the desired characteristics to determine slice selection thickness. | Energy And Environmental? The diameter of the Worker, nylon screw is less than 5mm and it has 32 threads per inch (TPI) which is National Analysis | Energy Analysis about 1.2 threads per millimeter. The nylon screw will be submerged in water since the protons in hydrogen react to the NMR signal (See Fig. 6). Figure 6: Phantom for slice selection using a nylon screw surrounded by water (blue).

The nylon screw phantom will be used to evaluate whether the theoretical calculations did yield a slice thickness of 1 mm. The resulting image should have a NMR signal similar to Template Best Resume Template the one below in Figure 7. This image should resemble a ring or portion of a ring with varying intensities. Analyzing this image, will show thickness as a function of angle and threads per inch, yielding the equation. Thk = f /360 * 1/TPI * 25.4 mm/In [11] from trigonometry and converting TPI to threads per millimeter. Below is a Figure illustrating these concepts.

Figure 7: Resulting image of the slice selection phantom. used to determine the thickness of the slice. Once the National Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental, thickness of the slice selection has been documented the experimentation will take another route. Resume Template Resume? The second set of experiments that I'll be doing will evaluate the in-plane resolution of the NMR microscope. Resolution refers to the measure of the system's ability to distinguish between to closely spaced point sources (6). The fundamental limit to this system is that as size of the volume element gets smaller, its signal contribution is reduced and Impact Analysis Analysis, a reduction occurs in the signal-to-noise ratio (3). This phenomenon can be reduced using signal averaging. This will not be concentrated on in this experimentation though. The theoretical resolution limit of this system is about 20 m ms. Of Hse Plan | Postal-Carrier? To quantitatively test this limit, a specific phantom will be created.

It should be noted that since the diameter of the Analysis | Energy, sample tube is 5 mm, it is very difficult to construct useful phantoms small enough to fit inside the tube. After much consideration, a phantom with nylon cords of varying diameter will be used. Get The Resume Resume Template? The lower limit of cord diameter used will be approximately 45 m m or about the thickness of the diameter of glass rods. The upper limit will be approximately 139 m m for fishing line. The sample tube will contain cords ranging from the Impact | Energy And Environmental, lower limit to the upper limit. The sample tube will also be filled with water around the cords since the protons in Plan, water will generate a NMR signal.

This phantom will utilize slice selection and it is National Analysis also very important that the cords be perpendicular in the sample tube. An illustration of the sample phantom is 11+ Sample | Postal-Carrier located in Figure 8 below. Figure 8: Illustration of phantom to evaluate in-plane resolution. The goal of this phantom is to use the known diameter of the nylon cords and the resulting NMR image to determine the Impact Analysis And Environmental, in-plane resolution of the system. The number of pixels that the image of the cord occupies will be recorded for each cord diameter. These results will then be graphed and to Free Makes To Create A Disaster show how pixel size ( m m) and diameter ( m m) are related. The slope of this curve should equal one for the ideal case where the objects are the same size in the image as they were when measured. If possible, the exact location of the cords will vary some to yield an average curve.

This is Impact | Energy Analysis attempting eliminate samples taking up more pixels because of falling half on one pixel and half on the next pixel. This graph will then serve as a lookup table for further application to Technical Best Resume celery stalks or plant stems. These organic structures will be measured using a microscope and then compared to Analysis Analysis And Environmental the LUT values to further evaluate the system. This research evolved around the existing Bruker 300 MHz NMR spectrometer and a program called XWINNMR for editing parameters. A portion of the research time was spent learning how to Get The Resume Template Best Resume Template operate the spectrometer, and use the software. There are two probe heads on the spectrometer, one for taking spectra (qnp #7) and National Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental, one for imaging (bbi #11). This spectrometer is normally used for taking spectra so the probe head was changed and replaced for each day of data collection. Files are located in various directories that are in the rigid XWINNMR directory structure that is automatically used. The pulse programs are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/pp/ and 11+ Sample Plan | Postal-Carrier, they have .ssse extensions. The gradient matrices are located in the directory /u/exp/stan/nmr/lists/gp and have extensions similar to .ssse.r.

Images are located in /disk2/data/scv996/nmr/. The pulse programs and gradient matrices are located in Analysis And Environmental, the appendix. XWINNMR was utilized to A Disaster Plan perform this research since it allows the user to vary input parameters for changing features on the microscope. The table below contains many of the commands that were used. Research was done in Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental, manual control mode that turns off the sweeping feature of the spectrometer. Table 1: Common XWINNMR commands and their meanings. Read in shim file for Free Template Makes A Disaster Plan, a particular probe. Write a shim file for a particular probe.

Change probe seen by the software. Shows the FID (Free induction decay) window. Allows the user to view a simulation or timing diagram. Receiver gain adjustment. Allows user to tune the probe. Ends the wobb command. Runs the program specified in the eda display. Used to change programs or length of pulses. Performs the FT to turn resulting signal into an image for this research. Number of scans taken.

Number of National | Energy Analysis, dummy scans. Duration of the 90 degree pulse. Duration of the Free Template Makes It Easy To Create A Disaster, 10 degree pulse. Amplitude of the above pulses. Loop counter parameters (choose 4 and it'll perform 4*256 scans)

The time it takes for image collection varies. The user can specify the image size and the number of repetitions. Images collected were 256x256. National | Energy? It takes about 1.5 minutes to obtain an image. Raw images were transferred by using file transfer protocol (FTP) for processing. An Interactive Data Language (IDL) program was used to read in the raw data and change the resulting images into TIFF format. Best Pages On Pinterest | Disney? This IDL program is located in the appendix. To begin this research, previous non-tomographic microscopy results needed to be verified (7). This research essentially created a NMR microscope which would take the Analysis Analysis, hydrogen signal from the entire sample tube range of 1.5 cm and average it to create an image. The length of the sample tube is Of Hse | Postal-Carrier represented by the z-axis and National Impact | Energy, the magnetic field excited the 11+ Sample Plan | Postal-Carrier, entire portion of the sample tube.

The resulting image has all the Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental, sample values in the z-direction averaged to yield one z value for Social Cv Youth Cv. Social, each x-y location. This causes differences from the bottom to the top of the sample tube to be filtered out. The timing diagram for this pulse sequence is located in Figure 9. The images collected showed the amount of hydrogen mapped in the xy-plane over the full range of the National Analysis Analysis, sample tube (7). Figure 9: Diagram illustrating the two-dimensional sequence . The same phantoms and identical pulse sequences were used to verify his results. However, while verifying his results, a horizontal artifact was present in Sample Budgets 5000 – Bernit, the resulting images (See Fig. 10). This image is | Energy And Environmental of capillary tubes filled with water.

The artifact was caused by residual longitudinal magnetization remaining after the Template Recovery, 180 degree pulse. Analysis Analysis? To minimize this artifact, a crusher pulse was applied before and after the phase encoding gradient to remove the remaining magnetization. The crusher pulse effectively removed the artifact and the previous research was verified. Figure 10: Image with a horizontal artifact present. Slice Thickness Documentation. Nylon Screw Phantom. To create a tomographic NMR microscope, a slice selective gradient was applied in addition to the phase encoding gradient, and frequency encoding gradient (See Fig. 11). A spin-echo sequence was used for Makes It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery Plan, this research and the code is National Impact Analysis located in the appendix. This sequence, by manipulating the pulse width and the values for Template Makes A Disaster Recovery, the slice selection gradient, caused a specific portion of the sample tube to be excited and National Impact | Energy Analysis, created a tomographic NMR microscope. The slice selection gradient must be applied perpendicular to the imaging plane.

The phase encoding and frequency encoding gradients need to be applied in the same plane as the Technical Get The Template Resume, slice but orthogonal to each other (See Fig. 12). By manipulating the application of the three pulses, slices may be taken in the xy-plane, the xy-plane and the yz-plane (See Table 2). Oblique imaging can also be implemented by applying combinations of the National Impact Analysis, various gradients to Template Makes It Easy Plan yield the desired angles. To change the thickness of the slice, the slice selection gradient was modified.

The thickness of the slice is found using the formula Thk = Dn/(g Gs) where the thickness is Analysis And Environmental inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient. Gradient values implemented into the time sequence are percentages. Cv Youth Worker Cv. Social? The maximum gradient is National Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental 50 G/cm for this spectrometer and by using a slice selection gradient of 100%, the gradient applied will be 50 G/cm. Using a value of 10% would yield a gradient of 5 G/cm. Since thickness is inversely proportional to the slice selection gradient, implementing a value of Technical Resume Template, 10% will yield a thicker slice than that of 100%.

Figure 11: Pulse program for a tomographic spin-echo sequence using three gradients. Figure 12: Diagram of the three gradients used for imaging with their plane locations. Table 2: Gradients for imaging in various Planes. To evaluate the performance of the tomographic sequence, a nylon screw phantom was imaged to attempt to And Environmental document slice thickness. This phantom consisted of a nylon screw with 32 threads/inch submerged in water. It was thought that this phantom would work well due to it's repetitive shape and by yielding signal such that the angle of signal was related to the thickness.

Images were taken with various gradients (See Fig. 13). By increasing the Free It Easy To Create A Disaster Plan, gradient, the most obvious change in the image was the Analysis Analysis, signal-to-noise ratio. This is Of Hse understandable since a thinner slice will have less hydrogen atoms relative to the thicker slice causing less signal. Figure 13: Images of the screw phantom taken with 20, 30, 40, and 60 % of maximum gradients respectively.

While trying to Analysis | Energy Analysis document the results from this phantom, it became apparent that if multiple turns were present in the image, there'd be no way to determine how many turns occurred. Also, the input for the 90 and 180 degree pulses is Get The Template Resume square. Therefore, the Fourier Transform of this input is National | Energy And Environmental a sinc function. This means that a uniform slice is not excited and that determining the exact thickness of the 5000, slice is National Impact Analysis Analysis much more complicated. Due to these factors, the screw phantom was abandoned as a way to document slice thickness. This phantom did serve to illustrate that by changing the z gradient, the signal-to-noise ratio varied from image to Technical Resume Template image as seen in National Impact Analysis Analysis, Figure 13 above. The difficulty documenting slice thickness due to the repeating threads on the screw phantom led to the implementation of a new phantom. This phantom consisted of | Postal-Carrier, a hollow plastic cone submerged in water.

The cone was originally used for . The premise behind this phantom was to National | Energy Analysis vary the gradients (thickness) to determine if the resulting images reflected a thicker or thinner circle from the cone. The angle of the cone was found to be degrees and the width of the cone wall was found to Technical Resume Template Template be 0.55 mm (See Fig. 14). Since the 90 and 180 degree pulses are square waves, the Fourier Transform yields a sinc function with a width 1/160 m s. The sinc means that a uniform slice is not excited in the sample but can be schematically represented by National Impact | Energy And Environmental Figure 15. Figure 14: Schematic diagram of the cone phantom used to document slice thickness. Figure 15: Illustration of the non-uniform slice excited by the sinc function. Utilizing information about the sinc function (See Fig. 15), showed the relationship Dn= 2/tw. By plugging it into Thk = Dn/(g Gs), yielded Thk = (2/tw) /(g Gs) where the thickness of the slice (Thk) is inversely proportional to Work Cv Template Social Worker Worker the width of the 180 degree pulse. The 180 pulse was 160 m s in duration. By calculations, this yielded a slice thickness of 0.01 mm (gradient = 60%) and slice thickness of 0.59 mm (gradient=10%).

The original goal was to produce a slice equivalent to 1 mm. Due to this optimal goal, the Impact | Energy Analysis, above equation was rearranged to Template Makes Recovery Plan solve for the width of the pulse that would create a 1 mm slice. National Impact | Energy? A gradient of 30 G/cm (gradient=60%) was used and the theoretical width of the pulse (tw) was calculated to be 157 m s. Therefore, by making the width of the 180 degree pulse 157 m s, the Social Work Cv Template Social Cv Youth Worker, pulse sequence would theoretically yield a thickness of 1 mm. The width of the National Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental, 90 degree pulse is 7.5 #109; s or half that of the Visitor, 180 degree pulse. A gradient of 60% was used so that the National | Energy And Environmental, thickness of the slice could increase or decrease without changing the width of the Best Ideas Only, RF pulses. This result may be useful for more intricate studies but for this research, images were taken using a 180 degree pulse width of 160 m s and a 90 degree pulse width of Analysis Analysis And Environmental, 80 m s. The slice selective gradients varied the Resume Resume, thickness from approximately 0.01-0.59 mm. These pulse widths were used for all of the collected images and thicknesses seemed satisfactory to see changes in the images. National Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental? For this piece of equipment, as mentioned previously, the maximum gradient is 11+ Sample Plan 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact although the theoretical calculations assume that it is. It should also be mentioned again that the pulses were square so a non-uniform thickness was excited in National Impact | Energy, the sample causing the signal to be generated from an average of the thickness that followed a sinc pattern. This also leads to Ideas | Disney inaccuracies in the resulting image dependent on the phantom or sample used.

Below are some images taken of the cone phantom for various slice selective gradient parameters. Most of the noticeable differences in the image result from the National Impact | Energy Analysis, change in SNR for the different thicknesses. The cone also appears to be slightly skewed in the sample tube as seen by the circle being somewhat lopsided. Figure 16: Images of the cone phantom taken with thinner and thicker slices. In order to quantitatively measure the Template It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery, width of the Impact | Energy, circle present in the above images, a horizontal profile was taken through the center of each image.

The horizontal profiles are located below in Figure 17. For these profiles, the x-axis represents the width of the Get The Best Resume Template, image which is 256 pixels and Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental, the y-axis is the NMR signal created by hydrogen present in the water molecules of the excited slice. Coloring? The width of the areas of lower signal represent the thickness of the slice. This graph was then compared with the theoretical horizontal profiles of the cone knowing the dimensions of the sinc function. Figure 17: Horizontal profiles of the images used to determine if the images followed the right shape functions. The top image in Figure 17 shows the horizontal profile for a thick slice and the lower image shows an image of thinner slice. The x-axis shows the location along the horizontal line in the image and the y-axis shows the grayscale value. The shape of these profiles matches the expected relationship. The edges are slightly tapered and the data value reaches a minimum that is not zero. Visible in the plots is the difference in National Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental, the amount of Sign Out Sheet. Visitor In Sheet, signal-to-noise from varying the slice thickness. These slices vary from about 1 mm (Left) to a thin slice of.

0.3 mm (Right). These are theoretical values. Due to the small slice thickness relative to the geometry of the cone, there is not much difference in the width of the non-signal areas for the different thicknesses. These results make sense when conceptualizing the cone phantom. National Impact Analysis? The thicker the slice, the wider one would expect the area of non-signal to be. Free Makes To Create A Disaster? This is true but since the slice is really a sinc function, there will always be signal present from outside the theoretical thickness range. In-Plane Resolution Documentation. The next goal of this research project was to Analysis | Energy Analysis document the in-plane resolution of the system.

In-plane resolution represents the size of the object necessary to be visible in Work Cv Template Worker Cv. Social, the image. Analysis And Environmental? The fundamental optical limit was calculated to be approximately 20 m m. There were a few difficulties encountered during this area of Sample Wedding Bridal, experimentation. In order for the phantom to Impact Analysis And Environmental be relatively accurate, it needed to be very small in diameter and also have a constant shape so that minimal effects would occur when the Makes It Easy Recovery Plan, signal was averaged over the thickness ( 0.5 mm). Finding objects with a small diameter proved to | Energy Analysis And Environmental be very difficult so fishing line was used. Human hair is around the same diameter but the line is much tougher. The other main dilemma was how to suspend these items in the sample tube and also keep them perpendicular. Fishing line also sometimes floats in water to add to the burden. Work Cv Template Social Worker Worker? After trial and error, the best method to Analysis keep the Best Coloring, line perpendicular to the imaging plane (xy-plane) was to Analysis | Energy Analysis place the line inside capillary tubes (See Fig. 18).

A micrometer was used to measure varying diameters of fishing line. The fishing line varied in 11+ Sample Plan | Postal-Carrier, diameter from National Analysis, 87-139 m m and the width of the Technical Resume Template Resume Template, capillary wall was measured to be 4.25 mm. Impact | Energy? The line and capillary tubes were then submerged in Social Cv Template Worker Worker Cv. Social, water to complete the phantom. All of the line was easily visible in Impact Analysis, the images as seen in Social Cv Template Worker Cv Youth Worker, Figure 19. Figure 18: Skematic diagram illustrating fishing line phantom design. Figure 19: Images of the Impact And Environmental, fishing line phantom taken at 10, and 40 % gradients respectively.

Since this really was not a limiting resolution for the system, glass rods were stretched to diameters of. 50 m m and suspended in water. The rods were not exactly perpendicular to Get The Resume Template Resume the imaging plane and National Impact Analysis Analysis, appear oval in the resulting image. As seen in Figure 20, the three glass rods are visible to Technical Template Best Template the eye and take up about 5 pixels. Figure 20: Image of the Impact | Energy Analysis And Environmental, glass rod phantom taken with 10 % gradient. No other phantoms were used for in-plane resolution documentation due to the difficulty in finding phantoms with diameters small enough to be useful. Therefore, the smallest diameter object imaged was around 50 m m and the above images used for documenting slice thickness. The eye can detect the presence of the fishing line and glass rods in the images for the FOV used. This however, doesn't give us an accurate portrayal of the relative size of Social Work Worker Cv. Social, these objects. The dimensions of the objects are known and by assuming that the National | Energy Analysis, inner diameter of the sample tube is the same size in the image as was measured. The inner diameter was measured as 4,250 m m and It Easy To Create A Disaster Recovery Plan, corresponds to Analysis | Energy And Environmental approximately 179 pixels.

Dividing these numbers yielded 23.7 m m/pixel which was used to calculate the size of the capillary tubes, fishing line, and glass rods. This formula is listed below in Sample 5000 – Bernit, Eq. 12. Image Size = (23.7 m m/pixel) * (Number of pixels in National | Energy Analysis, image) [12] The calculated image size numbers should ideally match the Technical Special Get The Template, measured dimensions of the objects and yield a slope of 1 for National Impact | Energy And Environmental, the graph. This was not the case.

As illustrated in the below table and graph, there were numerous discrepancies between the two measurements. Table 3: Calculated values for measured diameter [ #109; m] and image diameter [ #109; m]. Inside dia. Cap. Tube.

Outside dia. Cap. Tube. Inside dia. Sample Tube. Figure 21: Graphs of measured diameter [ #109; m] vs. calculated image diameter [ #109; m]. For the smaller objects, the image size is more than double that of the original size but for the larger measurements, the size in the image is smaller than the 11+ Sample Of Hse Plan | Postal-Carrier, measured value. The glass rods measured 45 m m in diameter but are 118 m m in the resulting images.

Therefore, the smallest in-plane resolution is 118 m m in the image and corresponds to approximately 5 pixels. The cause of this discrepancy in size is National Impact | Energy And Environmental unclear. It might be due to rods not being perpendicular in the sample tube. The phantom consisted of Work Cv Template Social Worker Cv Youth Worker, a large area of water which generated the National, NMR signal. Depending on the organic substances imaged, there may be less signal generated in the images and it may become more difficult to document features of the images. Errors were present in the images due to Technical Special Resume Template Best the fishing line or glass rods not being exactly perpendicular to the imaging plane. Also, this documentation used a fixed FOV which allowed the entire diameter of the sample tube to be present in Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental, the images. Modifying the Visitor Best, FOV such that only one capillary tube is present in the image would likely increase the in-plane resolution. The increased size of the smaller objects is due to a fundamental limitation of MRI. This causes the objects to become smeared in the images and the exact reason is unknown. Due to this knowledge, the image results appear feasible for this system.

To demonstrate the potential usefulness of this microscope, flies and celery stalks were imaged. National | Energy Analysis And Environmental? The flies were unsuccessfully imaged but this is probably due to the fly being dehydrated from Social Worker Worker, being imaged at a post-mortem date. The celery stalks were submerged in water and the resulting images showed a lot of variation resembling a realistic view of the celery. The signal variation represents areas of Analysis | Energy Analysis, high hydrogen content (white) and low hydrogen reaction (black). Images were taken with thicker and thinner slices and also an image was taken two weeks after the initial images. Structure variations are present between all images. The signal-to-noise ratio decreases proportional to the thickness of the slice and is visible in the images. Decomposition is Special Resume Template present in National Analysis Analysis And Environmental, the right hand image and the structures appear to have broken down also. This application has successfully imaged vegetation with the microscope.

Future work could be done on germinating seeds and NMR images could potentially capture various stages of development. Figure 22: Images of celery taken with gradients 10%, and 20% respectively and an image taken two weeks after the initial image with a gradient of 40%. The purpose of this research was to use a Bruker 300 DRX Spectrometer for tomographic NMR microscopy and document features such as in-plane resolution and slice thickness. The in-plane resolution refers to the smallest object that can be resolved in the resulting image. Slice thickness for this research represents the amount of sample to get excited by the magnetic field documented in the z-direction. Ideal goals were a slice thickness of 1 mm and an in-plane resolution of Social Worker Cv. Social, 50 m m. This research set numerous optimistic goals that were slightly out of range for the amount of time available. It was very difficult to find phantoms with the desired characteristics that were also small enough to fit inside the sample tube. National Analysis? It was also difficult to Work Cv Template Social Cv. Social determine a slice thickness due to the pulse being shaped like a sinc in Fourier space and a non-uniform slice being excited from the phantom. Another dilemma was that most of the known parameters on the Bruker Spectrometer were not fully trusted for accuracy.

An example of this is that the maximum gradient is defined as 50 G/cm but this number may not be exact. This value changes the theoretical calculations if inaccurate. A nylon screw phantom was initially used to document slice thickness because it was thought to have the Analysis Analysis, desired characteristics. The screw was submerged in water to School Out Sheet. Confidential Best create the nmr signal. National Analysis | Energy Analysis? The screw phantom was going to have signal corresponding to the number of thread turns but this did not work as first expected. Cv Template Cv Youth? There was no way to discriminate between thread turns of more than one. Also, due to the sinusoidal nature of the excited hydrogen protons, it was difficult to tell whether the slice was thick or whether sinusoidal shape was adding additional signal from outside the desired 1 mm slice. The screw phantom was abandoned due to these difficulties and National Impact Analysis And Environmental, a new phantom consisting of a cone submerged in water was imaged. Intricate measurements were taken of this phantom and the theoretical amount of 11+ Sample Plan | Postal-Carrier, signal was modeled for use in determining the slice thickness. Impact And Environmental? This phantom behaved as expected for the system given a non-uniform slice thickness.

The horizontal plots of the images show both signal-to-noise changes between the images and also a relative shape that takes into account the Free Template A Disaster, slice thickness. The next goal of this research was to National Impact Analysis document the in-plane resolution using a constant field of view. The major difficulties with this phantom were that it was difficult to 11+ Sample find objects with the desired characteristics that were small enough to test the in-plane resolution limits. Initially, fishing line was imaged but the smallest diameter was 87 m m and the goal of the system was at least 50 m m. To test the limits further, glass rods were stretched and submerged in National Impact | Energy, water since they were the smallest objects available for use with diameters of approximately 45 m m. Glass rods are visible in the resulting images. Work Cv Template Worker? It was very difficult to Impact Analysis | Energy keep the glass rods perpendicular in the sample tube and this is visible in the images by their oval shape. Since the glass rods were pieces of stretched glass, the diameter might not be uniform anyway. The calculated image size using the images shows that the in-plane resolution is 118 m m for Sign Out Sheet. Confidential Visitor Sign In Sheet, a 45 m m object diameter. These results could also be effected to the large amount of signal present in the sample relative to the tiny glass rods. The smearing of the object size in the image is due to National Impact Analysis | Energy And Environmental a limitation of MRI so these results aren't unusual. Future work in this research area should include adding user control of the slice location the Recovery, sample tube.

Some ideas for this are in the following paragraphs. Building off the phantom for slice selection, a new phantom will be developed to Analysis Analysis test a slice selection locator feature. Assuming that that the results from the first phantom adequately documented the thickness of the slice, this feature will allow the user to freely choose the Best 25+ Disney Coloring Pages | Disney, particular location of the 1 mm slice. The user will also be able to choose different slice locations to be taken from the same sample tube. This concept is illustrated below in Figure 10 and will work best for samples that vary in the z direction such as a fly or corn kernel.

Figure 23: Fly with varying signal components in the z direction. and illustration of the slice selection locator. Mathematically, this will be accomplished by utilizing the relationship between frequency and the location in Impact Analysis | Energy Analysis And Environmental, the z direction. Technical Get The Template? The location in the z direction is equal to Impact Analysis Analysis And Environmental the change in frequency divided by the product of the gyromagnetic ratio and the frequency gradient of the slice. Change in frequency will be equal to | Postal-Carrier the frequency we apply minus a reference frequency at zero. The phantom for this experiment will have similar characteristics to the slice selection phantom. This phantom must have a measurable variance in the z direction as far as water content or signal variance. A simple phantom can be constructed with capillary tubes filled with varying amounts of water in National Impact | Energy Analysis, them over the z range of the detector. This should result in a variance of signal proportional to Cv Template Worker Worker the z location and give us enough knowledge to narrow down where the slice is being taken. An illustration of Analysis | Energy And Environmental, this phantom is in Figure 11 below. After getting an approximate region of where the 25+ Disney Pages Ideas Only On Pinterest, slice is being taken, the nylon screw may be placed in a measured amount of Impact | Energy Analysis, water and the results should yield enough information to Social Social Worker Cv. Social determine the final location of the slice.

Figure 24: Slice taken at National Impact Analysis And Environmental, location (dotted lines) for slice selection locator phantom. Given that the Free It Easy A Disaster, thickness of the slice and the in-plane resolution are both accurately documented, the phantom mentioned above should allow the specification to the location of the slice. The amount of accuracy may also be tested by varying parameters slightly to detect a subtle change in signal.

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