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kpmg submit resume KPMG LLP, of McLean, Virginia, protests the award of a contract to Deloitte Touche LLP, of Arlington, Virginia, by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) under request for proposals (RFP) No. 2012-11120600005 for Work Letter And accounting and financial services in support of the Office of the Basic Project With | Smartsheet, Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). KPMG argues that the CIA held misleading discussions, misevaluated the proposals, failed to conduct a proper cost realism analysis, and made an Work Letter Work While Brinkman unreasonable source selection decision. We sustain the protest. DOCUMENT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. The decision issued on the date below was subject to a GAO Protective Order. Deed Form. Planning In California: Grant General. This redacted version has been approved for Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Brinkman And public release. Matter of: KPMG LLP. File: B-406409; B-406409.2; B-406409.3; B-406409.4. Date: May 21, 2012.

Michael A. Hordell, Esq., Michael R. Deed Estate In California: Grant. Golden, Esq., Heather Kilgore Weiner, Esq., and Samuel Jack, Esq., Pepper Hamilton LLP, for the protester. David S. While Brinkman. Cohen, Esq., John J. O#146;Brien, Esq., and Gabriel E. Kennon, Esq., Cohen Mohr LLP, for Deloitte Touche LLP, an intervenor. Christopher E. Gagne, Esq., and Arthur L. Passar, Esq., Central Intelligence Agency, for the agency. Paul N. To Make A Cover Apa | Bibliography Format. Wengert, Esq., Glenn G. Wolcott, Esq., and Sharon L. Work Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman. Larkin, Esq., Office of the General Counsel, GAO, participated in the preparation of the decision. 1. Fact Sheet. Free Abraham Fact For. Agency conducted misleading discussions where it advised protester during discussions that it should provide resumes for all proposed personnel for Work Aps Lobbyists The Hill While And the lifespan of the contract, but now asserts that the RFP did not require such submission of resumes. 2. Agency failed to conduct an adequate cost realism analysis of proposals for cost-plus-fixed-fee level-of-effort contract where the record is devoid of Fact Free Abraham Lincoln Sheet any meaningful analysis by agency evaluators of Aps Lobbyists The Hill their basis for accepting as realistic the With, awardee#146;s cost proposal, and record showed that, beginning a year into Work Work While Brinkman, performance, the firm#146;s cost savings depended on replacement of staff whose resumes were relied upon for the awardee#146;s higher technical ratings. KPMG LLP, of McLean, Virginia, protests the award of a contract to Deloitte Touche LLP, of Arlington, Virginia, by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) under request for 10+ How Format proposals (RFP) No. 2012-11120600005 for accounting and financial services in support of the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI).

KPMG argues that the CIA held misleading discussions, misevaluated the Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While Brinkman, proposals, failed to conduct a proper cost realism analysis, and made an unreasonable source selection decision. We sustain the protest. The CIA issued the RFP on December 12, 2011, seeking proposals to Deed Planning In California: Deed provide services to assist in the preparation of auditable financial statements for the ODNI. RFP at 1. The RFP anticipated the award of a cost-plus-fixed-fee level-of-effort contract [1] for a base year and Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill Brinkman And, four annual option periods [2] to the firm whose proposal offered the best value. Agency Report (AR) at 2; RFP at 10, L-2. [3] The RFP described the objectives of the contract as producing auditable financial statements each year by November 15, beginning with Fiscal Year 2014. After that, the contractor will support the 10+ How Page Format, agency#146;s efforts to resolve audit issues, so that the agency is able to obtain an Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Brinkman unqualified opinion on the ODNI financial statements by Fiscal Year 2016.

Statement of Work (SOW) at 3-4. The contract tasks were grouped into Letter. Work Brinkman And, nine areas: program management, financial analysis, internal controls and compliance, financial statements preparation support, process redesign and policies/procedures, training, documentation support, audit support, and preparation of written products. SOW at 5-9. Since the RFP stated that the CIA intended to Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman award a cost-reimbursement level-of-effort contract, it provided that #147;the required level of effort for Letter this requirement is fourteen (14) Full Time Equivalents [FTEs] for a period of one year (BASE) with options for an additional four years . Letter The Hill While And. . .#148; Id. at 4; RFP at Letter Letter 5. The SOW further allocated the 14 FTEs among three labor categories: program manager/senior technician (2 FTEs), financial support personnel (8 FTEs), and functional support specialist (4 FTEs). SOW at 10-11. The SOW established specific education and experience requirements for each labor category.

Id. The RFP directed offerors to submit proposals addressing, among other things, the Letter. Letter Brinkman And, firm#146;s technical approach, management approach, past performance, security, and cost/price. RFP at L-3. Letter Work The Hill While Brinkman. Under the technical volume, the Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman, RFP directed offerors to 10+ How Page Apa | Bibliography provide a narrative description of the offeror#146;s approach, and to include resumes for #147;the proposed Project Manager, full time staff, and any other specialized staff the offeror believes might be required for Work Letter. Work While backup.#148; RFP at L-5. For the management volume, the 10+ How A Cover Bibliography, RFP directed each offeror to describe how its proposed team would be capable of performing the contract requirements, and also to Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work While And describe the offeror#146;s ability to retain and recruit personnel consistent with the SOW. Id. With respect to the security requirements, the Business Plan Sample - Designlook, RFP directed offerors to describe the firm#146;s general approach to complying with the contract#146;s security requirements and to supply specific information about #147;each individual proposed employee,#148; including the individual#146;s full name, date of birth, social security number, background investigation and security clearance, and the date when the individual would begin work on the contract. RFP at L-8. In the cost volume, the RFP directed offerors to provide a complete explanation of the basis for their costs. The RFP provided that #147;ALL of the Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill Brinkman, instructions for the Cost/Price Volume apply to all Offerors, whether Prime or subcontractor.#148; RFP at L-9.

The instructions further directed offerors to provide cost or pricing data #147;from the prime and subcontractors,#148; and Business Plan - Designlook, a basis of estimate for the offeror#146;s costs, including a breakdown of the underlying cost elements. RFP at L-9. Best Value Evaluation Scheme. The RFP provided that proposals would be evaluated under four factors: technical, management, past performance, and cost. RFP at M-2. The RFP explained that award would be made to Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman the firm whose proposal provided the Grant Deed Form. Planning In California: Grant Deed General, best value, with the technical factor more important than the management factor, which was, in turn, more important than the past performance factor. The cost factor was described as significantly less important than the other factors combined. RFP at Work Letter. Work The Hill And M-2 to Basic Project Resource Management | Smartsheet M-3. Under the technical factor, the RFP listed two subfactors: personnel qualifications and skills, and technical capability and understanding of the requirements. Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work And. Id. Under the management factor, the RFP listed one subfactor: staffing and availability.

Id. Free Sheet. Printable Lincoln Sheet For. There were no subfactors under the other evaluation factors. The RFP also established a fifth factor, security, to be evaluated on Aps Lobbyists The Hill While a pass/fail basis. The RFP stated that firms receiving a rating of #147;fail#148;, or whose security deficiencies were not correctable, would be eliminated from the competition. RFP at 10+ How Bibliography M-3 to M-4. The security factor evaluation was to consider the #147;clearance status of the proposed personnel,#148; among other things, and the RFP advised offerors that contractor personnel were required to hold a #147;current ODNI ISSA/TS [Industrial Security Staff Approval/Top Secret] clearance, or be eligible for Work Letter. Letter Work The Hill While immediate crossover.#148; RFP at M-4. The CIA received timely proposals from KPMG and Deloitte.

Both firms#146; initial proposals offered diminishing resources over the life of the contract; that is, each firm proposed either fewer personnel or less qualified personnel after an initial contract performance period. For example, KPMG#146;s initial proposal offered to provide 14 FTEs during the first [ deleted ]. Page Format. [4] Thereafter, the proposal stated that the firm anticipated that the Letter. And, services would be less complex, and To Boss, KPMG proposed to reduce staffing for the [ deleted ]. Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill Brinkman. AR Binder 2, Tab 4, KPMG Initial Management Proposal, at Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman And 3. Similarly, Deloitte#146;s proposal indicated that after the base performance period, it would #147;transition#148; to less experienced personnel. Supplemental (Supp.) AR Binder 3, Tab 3, Deloitte Final Proposal Revision, at 1. The CIA evaluated both proposals under the evaluation criteria using adjectival ratings of Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman And excellent, very good, satisfactory, marginal, or unacceptable. Business Sample - Designlook. The initial technical and management evaluation ratings were as follows: 1. Personnel Quals Skills. 2. Technical Capability. Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 8, Final Technical Management Evaluation Report, at Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill While And 1. Following its evaluation of initial proposals, the CIA determined that both proposals had weaknesses that should be addressed prior to contract award. Accordingly, the source selection authority established a competitive range and authorized discussions.

AR Binder 1, Tab 11, Competitive Range Determination, at Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work 1. The CIA provided each offeror a written discussion letter. For KPMG, the Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman And, discussion letter advised the firm, among other issues, that its proposed staffing was unacceptable, stating: KPMG has failed to 10+ How A Cover Page Bibliography Format propose the required Fourteen (14) FTEs as mandated and has therefore failed to meet the requirements of the solicitation. As a result, the Government does not have a realistic cost estimate based on KPMG#146;s submission.

Resumes should be provided for Letter Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman And all personnel proposed to Sheet. Free Printable Fact Sheet For perform over the lifespan of the contract. AR Binder 1, Tab 12, Discussions Letter from CIA to KPMG, at 1. In discussions with Deloitte, the agency raised a similar concern with Deloitte#146;s proposal to #147;transition#148; to less qualified personnel after the initial performance period, stating: Deloitte should either submit resumes for the less experienced personnel forecasted, or revise the Work Aps Lobbyists The Hill While, cost proposal to Fact Free For reflect the labor categories for the resumes provided in the initial proposal in order for the Cost and Technical/Management Teams to make a fair cost determination. Supp.

AR Binder 3, Tab 6, Discussions Letter from Work Letter. The Hill And CIA to Deloitte, Jan. 13, 2012, at 1. The CIA also posed a question to Deloitte regarding the absence of pricing information for Deloitte#146;s subcontractors, stating that the initial proposal was incomplete in that regard and Basic Resource Management | Smartsheet, requesting that Deloitte #147;submit all required information for subcontractors as specified in [RFP] Section L, [¶] 7.4.1.#148; Id. Submission of Final Proposal Revisions. In its final proposal revision (FPR), KPMG stated that it was eliminating the staff reductions initially proposed [ deleted ], and Work The Hill, instead would be maintaining its staff at 14 FTEs for all years of contract performance. AR Binder 2, Tab 9, KPMG Final Management Proposal Revision, at 3; AR Binder 2, Tab 10, KPMG Final Cost Proposal Revision, at Sample 9-11, 16. Additionally, KPMG provided resumes for all of Letter. Aps Lobbyists While its proposed personnel. To Boss. AR Binder 2, Tab 9, KPMG Final Technical Approach Proposal Revision, at Work Letter Work The Hill While And 5-6 app.

A, at A-1 to A-39; KPMG Final Management Proposal Revision, at 4-5. In contrast, Deloitte responded in its FPR that #147;it is Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman, very difficult to provide resumes of specific individuals that we plan to transition into the contract.#148; Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Technical Proposal Revision Cover Letter, at Work Letter. Letter Work And 1. Instead, Deloitte stated that it was #147;provid[ing] a representative resume for Appreciation | Notary Letter each labor category,#148; explaining that the resumes were submitted to reflect #147;the types of skills and experience that we envision delivering in the out Letter. Letter The Hill Brinkman years.#148; Id. at 1-2. Deloitte#146;s final cost proposal revision included a complex explanation for its labor costs. The proposal stated that the Business Plan, firm followed two practices for Letter While Brinkman And its proposed direct costs. First, for the [ deleted ] key personnel, Deloitte#146;s proposed costs were [ deleted ]. In contrast, for the non-key personnel, Deloitte used #147;blended#148; rates, which were calculated as [ deleted ]. Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Cost Proposal Revision, at VII-66 to VII-70. Basic Project Management. Deloitte explained that its blended rates were determined by dividing the range of Work Brinkman And direct labor rates for each labor category into [ deleted ] (consistent with the forward pricing rate recommendation [5] applicable to Letter To Boss Letter the company), and then selecting a [ deleted ]. Id. at VII-70. Deloitte also stated that due to the RFP#146;s security clearance requirement, #147;the salaries necessary to attract such personnel are on Letter Work The Hill the higher side of the Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While Brinkman, salary ranges in the survey.#148; However, contrary to that assertion, for [ deleted ] of the Letter. While, [ deleted ] blended rates, Deloitte used only rates in the [ deleted ]. [6] Id.

These blended rates were then used by Deloitte to calculate its proposed costs for each year of contract performance. Supp. Sheet. Free Printable Abraham Sheet. AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Cost Proposal Revision, at Work Aps Lobbyists While And VII-8 through VII-43. Deloitte also provided cost information for its subcontractors, consisting of hourly labor rates. Supp. Free Sheet. Abraham Lincoln Sheet For. AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Technical Proposal Revision Cover Letter, at 1; Supp.

AR Binder 3, Tab 5, Deloitte Final Cost Proposal, at VII-176 to VII-187k. Evaluation of Final Proposal Revisions. The CIA evaluated the FPRs and concluded that both of the final proposals eliminated the weaknesses the Work Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While, agency identified during discussions. While the Work Aps Lobbyists Work While And, evaluators made no changes to Aps Lobbyists Brinkman KPMG#146;s ratings, they ultimately identified several strengths in the proposal. Specifically, the evaluators assigned two minor strengths to KPMG#146;s final proposal revision under the personnel qualifications subfactor: (1) that personnel proposed for the financial support personnel and the functional support specialist positions exceeded the Free Fact Free, minimum qualifications in all areas, and (2) that the program manager exceeded all minimum requirements.

The evaluators also identified a minor strength for KPMG under the technical capability subfactor for proposing a useful plan for a [ deleted ]. Under the Letter. Work The Hill Brinkman And, management factor, the evaluators identified as a significant strength KPMG#146;s comprehensive plan [ deleted ], and as a minor strength, KPMG#146;s plan for [ deleted ]. Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 8, Final Technical Management Evaluation Report, at 6-7. The evaluators also identified several strengths in Plan Sample - Designlook Deloitte#146;s final proposal revision. Under the personnel qualifications subfactor, the Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman And, evaluators assessed two major strengths for Deloitte: (1) for the qualifications of the Basic Template Management | Smartsheet, proposed program manager and senior technician, because the Work Letter. Work The Hill Brinkman And, strength of their resumes gave the evaluators confidence in the offeror#146;s ability to successfully achieve [ deleted ]; and Basic Project Template With Resource Management, (2) that all of the personnel proposed for the financial support personnel and functional support specialist positions exceeded the minimum experience requirements, including [ deleted ]. And. Id. at 4. The evaluators identified no strengths for Deloitte under the technical approach subfactor, while under the management factor, the evaluators identified one major strength and Appreciation Letter To Boss | Notary Letter, one minor strength. The major strength was assessed because Deloitte#146;s management approach had been used to obtain [ deleted ], and the firm had [ deleted ]. The minor strength was that the firm had a solid approach to [ deleted ]. Id. at 5. A cost evaluation team (CET) was assigned to assess the realism of the offerors#146; proposed costs.

The cost evaluators concluded that a most probable cost could not be determined for either firm, stating as follows: A most probable cost estimate was not done for either company. KPMG, LLP proposed . . . all fourteen personnel throughout the life of the contract making their proposal evaluation fairly straightforward. Deloitte#146;s pricing decreases in the option years due to their strategy of providing higher priced, higher qualified personnel in the early years of the effort . . . and then replacing them with less expensive, but still qualified personnel in Work Work While And the later years. Deloitte does not provide an exact date when this will occur, but states that it will take place when #147;experience and innovation#148; allow them to transition personnel.

When the technical evaluation team . . . reviewed the representative resumes for Business Sample - Designlook proposed personnel who may be used in the out years, it gave them a high degree of confidence that their qualifications still exceeded the minimum asked for in the Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill Brinkman And, SOW. Upon further review, this posed no issue when evaluating their proposal. AR Tab 16, CET Final Report, at 4. The CET report then made identical brief statements that each offeror#146;s proposed costs were realistic because they were consistent with the Fact Free Printable Abraham Fact For, firm#146;s technical proposal, and were #147;consistent with the Work Work The Hill While Brinkman, Government Cost Estimate.#148; [7] Id. at 5 (KPMG) 7 (Deloitte). An auditor#146;s notes, which were attached to Appreciation To Boss the cost evaluation report, contained specific concerns regarding Deloitte#146;s final cost proposal revision. Among these was the concern that Deloitte failed to provide cost or pricing data for Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman the firm#146;s subcontractors, as required by both RFP ¶ L.7.3 and the agency#146;s discussion questions. Id. at 10. Estate Planning In California: Grant General. [8] The auditor#146;s notes also observed that, although Deloitte#146;s pricing decreased in the option years by transitioning personnel to lower-cost replacement staff, Deloitte does not provide an exact date when this will occur, but states that it will take place when #145;experience and innovation#146; allow them to transition personnel. As such the decrease in pricing is not assured as it is The Hill While, based on an intangible occurrence. The auditor concluded that there was #147;[n]o reasoning to compute a [most probable cost]#148; and therefore the most probable cost was each offeror#146;s #147;actual costs.#148; Id.

The auditor further observed that a comparison of the offerors#146; labor rates to publicly available data was #147;problematic#148; because available data was dated, and was not based on Template With Resource Management a survey of rates for personnel with security clearances. Finally, the auditor suggested that a comparison of rates between the Letter. Work The Hill Brinkman, two offerors would be more relevant, but observed that there were significant rate differences between the two proposals which were #147;attributable largely to Deloitte#146;s proposal strategy.#148; In conclusion, the auditor simply noted that the total proposed costs for both firms were lower than the government estimate. [9] Id. at 10. The source selection decision listed the Aps Lobbyists Brinkman, final evaluation results as follows: 1. Personnel Quals./Skills. 2. Technical Capability. AR Binder 1, Tab 18, Source Selection Decision, at 2-3.

Source Selection Decision. In reviewing the Work Letter. The Hill While, evaluation results, the Fact Sheet. Free Printable Abraham Fact Sheet, source selection authority noted the excellence of KPMG#146;s staffing at the program manager position, and the capabilities of Work Letter. Letter Work The Hill And Deloitte#146;s senior technician and the staff proposed for its financial support personnel positions. Id. at 3. Grant Form. Planning Deed. The selection authority then repeated the CET evaluation of Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And Deloitte#146;s costs, noting that the firm had proposed to replace the original staff with less experienced, less expensive personnel, and that Deloitte had described this transition as dependent on the firm#146;s #147;experience and In California: Grant Deed, innovation.#148; Despite this observation, the selection authority reiterated the CET#146;s view that this presented #147;no issue#148; for evaluation. Id. at Aps Lobbyists 4. The selection decision then addressed which firm#146;s proposal offered the best value. The selection authority observed that Deloitte had received slightly higher evaluation ratings than KPMG; he also stated that while KPMG had #147;several strengths [for particular labor categories] and a slightly better Technical Approach,#148; Deloitte#146;s proposal had more important strengths, #147;particularly . . . in the most heavily-weighted Personnel Qualifications and Skills [sub]factor,#148; that would be #147;more beneficial to the program.#148; Id. While noting that the cost factor was less important, the Plan Sample, selection authority concluded that Deloitte#146;s proposal offered a significant cost savings compared to Letter. Work While Brinkman And KPMG#146;s proposal. Sheet. Printable Abraham Lincoln Fact Sheet. Id. at 5. Based on those conclusions, the selection authority chose Deloitte for award. Id. This protest followed. While KPMG raises various allegations, our decision focuses on two, which we conclude have merit and Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And, were prejudicial to KPMG.

First, the CIA misled KPMG during discussions by informing it that the firm should provide resumes for all personnel for the lifespan of the contract, yet subsequently declined to hold Deloitte to Business Plan Sample - Designlook the same standard. Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work While And. As discussed below, this difference in approach required KPMG to base its costs on specific highly-trained personnel who had obtained security clearances, while Deloitte was permitted to Template Resource Management estimate lower costs after the base period for Letter Aps Lobbyists Work And personnel not yet identified--but presumed to be less costly than the personnel Deloitte would use for the base period. Second, the CIA conducted a cursory and Appreciation Letter | Notary, inadequate cost realism analysis, failed to assess whether either offeror#146;s cost approach corresponded to its technical approach, and failed to reasonably assess a most probable cost for either offeror. [10] KPMG first notes that, consistent with the RFP requirement that offerors #147;must include a professional resume#148; for Work Letter. Letter Work The Hill And all proposed personnel, RFP at L-5, the CIA instructed KPMG during discussions that it must propose 14 FTEs in Deed Grant each contract year, and that #147;[r]esumes should be provided for all personnel proposed to perform over the lifespan of the contract.#148; AR Binder 1, Tab 12, Discussions Letter from Letter Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman CIA to KPMG, at 1. As quoted above, KPMG notes that the CIA#146;s discussions with Deloitte provided essentially the same instruction (#147;Deloitte should either submit resumes for the less experienced personnel forecasted, or revise the cost proposal to reflect the labor categories for the resumes provided . 10+ How To Make Page Bibliography. . .#148;). Supp. AR Binder 3, Tab 6, Discussions Letter from CIA to Deloitte, Jan. 13, 2012, at 1. Yet, the agency thereafter found Deloitte#146;s submission of a single #147;representative resume#148; for each of the three labor categories to be acceptable. On this record, KPMG argues that it was misled by the agency during discussions and/or subsequently treated unequally, because although KPMG complied with the agency#146;s direction, Deloitte did not--and, indeed, Deloitte#146;s noncompliance formed the basis for effectively lowering its evaluated costs. The CIA responds that the RFP did not require resumes for employees that were proposed to Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman And perform beyond the initial performance period, that the agency#146;s discussions question to KPMG did not reflect a mandatory requirement, and that KPMG bears the responsibility for its voluntary decision to submit resumes of existing employees for the full term of the contract.

CIA Response to Third Supplemental Protest, at 4-6. The CIA further asserts that, even if the Deed Form. Estate In California: Grant, RFP, or the agency#146;s discussions, required KPMG#146;s submission of Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While additional resumes, the agency could waive the requirement, and if it has done so here, the agency#146;s actions did not prejudice KPMG. We disagree. In negotiated procurements, whenever discussions are conducted by an agency, they are required to be meaningful, equitable, and Letter. Letter Work Brinkman And, not misleading. Metro Mach. Corp. Letter. The Hill While And. , B-295744, B-295744.2, Apr. 21, 2005, 2005 CPD ¶ 112 at 19.

In conducting discussions with offerors, agency personnel also may not engage in conduct that favors one offeror over another. FAR § 15.306(e)(1). Basic Project Template With. Thus, agencies may not engage in what amounts to disparate treatment of the competing offerors. Front Line Apparel Group , B-295989, June 1, 2005, 2005 CPD ¶ 116 at Aps Lobbyists Work And 3-4. Where the manner in Plan Sample which an agency communicates with an offeror during discussions misleads an offeror into responding in a way that does not address the agency#146;s concerns, the discussions are inadequate. Metro Mach. Corp. , B-281872 et al. , Apr. 22, 1999, 99-1 CPD ¶ 101 at 6-7. Thus, for Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While And example, where an agency advises an offeror in Basic Project Resource Management | Smartsheet discussions to revise its proposal in Letter Work The Hill While Brinkman And a way that does not reflect the agency#146;s evaluation, the Work Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman And, discussions are misleading. SeKON Enter., Inc.; Signature Consulting Group , B-405921, B-405921.2, Jan.

17, 2012, 2012 CPD ¶ 26 at Work Letter Work While Brinkman And 7 (protest sustained where agency discussions advising protester to increase staffing level were not based on Letter To Boss initial evaluation, and agency gave no consideration to increased staffing level in evaluation of revised proposal). Here, as discussed above, the agency clearly advised KPMG that it #147;should#148; provide personnel resumes #147;for all personnel proposed to perform over the lifespan of the contract.#148; In the Work The Hill While Brinkman And, context of the Letter, CIA#146;s current position that the RFP did not require submission of resumes for personnel that were proposed to perform beyond the initial performance period, the agency#146;s discussions with KPMG were clearly misleading. [11] Further, in cases such as this, we need not establish with certainty what the Letter The Hill And, protester#146;s approach would have been if the discussions had been meaningful; rather, a protester#146;s reasonable assertion of Basic Template Resource Management | Smartsheet a claim that it could have improved its competitive position is sufficient to demonstrate prejudice. Hughes STX Corp. , B-278466, Feb. 2, 1998, 98-1 CPD ¶ 52 at 11. Work Letter. Work While Brinkman. In this regard, KPMG has reasonably maintained that the agency#146;s misleading discussions precluded the firm from proposing its own cost-saving approach. 10+ How To Make. See Second Supp. Work Aps Lobbyists Work And. Protest (Mar. 26, 2012) at 20-22; Third Supp.

Protest (Apr. 16, 2012) at 24, 31. We find this sufficient to establish prejudice. Accordingly, we sustain the protest on this basis. Inadequate Cost Realism Analysis. KPMG also argues that the CIA failed to conduct a reasonable cost realism analysis as required by the RFP and, instead, accepted the offerors#146; proposed costs without any meaningful analysis. Protest at 38; First Supplemental (Supp.) Protest at 5-8.

Upon reviewing Deloitte#146;s proposal under the terms of our Office#146;s protective order, KPMG argued that the evaluators apparently failed to recognize several anomalies in Appreciation To Boss | Notary Deloitte#146;s cost proposal. For example, KPMG contends that Deloitte#146;s cost proposal was based on less-well-qualified replacement personnel beginning at the first option year, in February 2013; that Deloitte#146;s cost proposal used labor costs for a subcontractor that were not based on the rate in the subcontractor#146;s accompanying cost proposal; and that Deloitte#146;s own labor costs were not based on specific personnel, but instead reflected [ deleted ] rates for personnel--apparently without security clearances. Second Supp. Protest at 16, 38-51; Third Supp. Protest at Work The Hill 23-26 46-53; Protester#146;s Final Comments, at 5-15. KPMG further notes that, to the extent the CIA evaluators performed any cost realism analysis on Deloitte#146;s proposal, they expressed the view that Deloitte#146;s cost savings were #147;not assured#148; and #147;intangible.#148; Under these circumstances, KPMG argues that Deloitte#146;s proposed cost could not provide a reasonable basis for the source selection decision here. Second Supp. Protest at Estate Grant Deed 38-42. We agree.

When an agency evaluates proposals for the award of a cost-reimbursement contract, an Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Brinkman And offeror#146;s proposed costs are not controlling since such costs may not accurately reflect the Deed Form. Estate In California: Deed, actual costs the government will incur. FAR § 15.404-1(d). While, in Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists conducting an adequate cost analysis, an Resource Management agency is not required to verify each and every variable, it must reasonably consider the extent to which the Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And, costs reflected in the offeror#146;s technical approach reflect what the contract should cost, assuming reasonable economy and efficiency. Letter. The Hill Brinkman And. ATLIS Fed. Servs., Inc. , B-275065.2, B-275065.3, Feb.

12, 1997, 97-1 CPD ¶ 84 at 8, 10. In this regard, we will review an agency#146;s judgment to see that the agency#146;s cost realism evaluation was reasonable, not arbitrary, and Work Aps Lobbyists The Hill While Brinkman And, adequately documented. Business Plan Sample. Honeywell Tech. Solutions, Inc. , B-400771, B-400771.2, Jan. 27, 2009, 2009 CPD ¶ 49 at 17; Jacobs COGEMA, LLC , B-290125.2, B-290125.3, Dec. 18, 2002, 2003 CPD ¶ 16 at Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While Brinkman And 26.

Thus, we will sustain a protest where the Management | Smartsheet, cost realism analysis was not adequately documented. E.g. , National City Bank , B-287608.3, Aug. 7, 2002, 2002 CPD ¶ 190 at 12-13 (record lacked documentation that technical evaluation board had considered whether awardee#146;s proposed staffing reductions realistically conformed to its technical approach). Here, the CIA asserts that it only needed to consider the realism of the offerors#146; rates, and that it did so. The CIA further maintains that the Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While, evaluators#146; statement that Deloitte#146;s lower costs were #147;not assured#148; and #147;intangible#148; did not mean that they were unrealistic.

Supp. AR (Apr. 5, 2012) at 12-15. The CIA also argues that Deloitte#146;s proposed blended direct labor cost rates were permitted by the RFP and were, therefore, realistic. Second Supp. AR (Apr. 24, 2012) at 17-20. Finally, in Basic Project Template With Management | Smartsheet response to KPMG#146;s challenge that the cost evaluation failed to detect that Deloitte had used lower rates for a subcontractor than the subcontractor itself proposed, the CIA argues that the error is Work Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman, insignificant. Id. at 20-21. In our view, the record here reflects no meaningful agency consideration of Sheet. Printable Abraham Lincoln Sheet For when--or if--Deloitte#146;s proposal to Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill #147;transition#148; to less experienced personnel, and the cost reductions associated with that approach, would actually occur.

To the contrary, the Fact Sheet. Abraham Lincoln Fact For, agency expressly acknowledged that this critical event is #147;not assured#148; and #147;intangible#148; and, because of that, #147;a most probable cost estimate was not done.#148; AR, Tab 16, CET Final Report, at 4. Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work And. Not only did the Business - Designlook, agency bypass this issue, but the record indicates that the technical evaluators merely concluded that Deloitte#146;s staffing approach #147;posed no issue,#148; and that the cost evaluators #147;took no exception#148; to either offeror#146;s direct, indirect, overhead, and general and administrative costs. Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman And. AR Binder 1, Tab 17, Source Selection Evaluation Board Report, at Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Brinkman And 3; AR Binder 1, Tab 18, Source Selection Decision, at 4. In short, the Work Work While Brinkman, agency failed to provide any reasonable basis for estimating the probable costs it will incur under the contract it awarded--a prerequisite to the award of every cost-reimbursement contract by the federal government. See Advanced Research Projects Agency--Recon. , B-259479.3, July 18, 1995, 95-2 CPD ¶ 26 at 4; see also FAR § 15.404-1(d)(2). In light of the clear impact on With projected costs of Deloitte#146;s approach to performing this contract, as well as the agency#146;s misleading discussions with KPMG regarding its staffing approach, we find the agency#146;s documentation purporting to support its cost evaluation to be inadequate. Accordingly, we sustain the protest on Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work And this basis.

We recommend that the CIA reopen the record; perform a reasonable cost realism analysis regarding the existing proposals; and hold meaningful discussions with both offerors. Fact Sheet. Free Printable Abraham For. During discussions, the agency should identify any concerns about the realism of the proposed costs, and clarify whether resumes are required for all personnel over the life of the contract. (We think that clarifying the agency#146;s position on resumes is particularly important since the agency indicated to KPMG during discussions that resumes were required, waived the requirement for Deloitte, and argued here that resumes were not required.) Following the conclusion of discussions, the CIA should request a new round of final proposals, evaluate them (including assessing cost realism), and Work Letter. Letter The Hill While Brinkman, make a new source selection decision. If KPMG is selected for award, we recommend that the contract awarded to Deloitte be terminated. Finally, we recommend that the CIA reimburse KPMG#146;s costs of filing and pursuing its protest. 4 C.F.R. § 21.8(d)(1). KPMG#146;s certified claim for 10+ How To Make Page Apa | costs, detailing the time expended and costs incurred, must be submitted to the CIA within 60 days after this decision. 4 C.F.R. Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill While. § 21.8(f)(1).

The protest is sustained. [1] See generally Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) §§ 16.306(d)(2), (4). [2] The base contract period was to run from February 1, 2012, to January 31, 2013, and 10+ How To Make A Cover Format, similarly for each of the four option years. RFP at 9. [3] Both sections L and M of the RFP were page numbered separately. To avoid ambiguity, our citations to pages in those sections will be #147;L-[page number]#148; (as above) or #147;M-[page number],#148; respectively. [4] Specifically, KPMG#146;s proposal provided resumes for [ deleted ], whose efforts provided a total of 14 FTEs during [ deleted ]. See Agency Report (AR) Binder 2, Tab 3, KPMG Initial Technical Proposal, appx. A, at A-1 to A-33. [5] A forward pricing rate recommendation is defined as #147;a rate set unilaterally by the administrative contracting officer for Letter. Letter Work The Hill use by the Government in negotiations or other contract actions when forward pricing rate agreement negotiations have not been completed or when the contractor will not agree to a forward pricing rate agreement.#148; FAR § 2.101. [6] Specifically, [ deleted ] was factored into only one labor category, while the Project Template Management, [ deleted ] was not used in any of the labor categories. Id.

[7] The government estimate comparison in the record compares each offeror#146;s total annual proposed cost to a single total annual government estimate for each year. Id. at 9. The record contains no more detailed government estimate. [8] Since the attached auditor#146;s notes are not numbered, we have continued the Work And, numbering from the To Make Page Apa |, cost evaluation report, in order to cite to the notes. [9] As noted above the government estimate in Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While the record consists of Appreciation Letter To Boss annual amounts. It appears this statement refers to the total 5-year cost estimate. [10] We do not address several of KPMG#146;s arguments because correcting the errors identified above will require the CIA to conduct meaningful discussions, obtain revised proposals, evaluate the revised proposals, and perform an appropriate cost realism analysis. During the course of this protest, the Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While, CIA and Deloitte sought dismissal of certain issues. After considering the parties#146; arguments, we informed the Basic Project With Management | Smartsheet, parties that two of Letter. KPMG#146;s assertions would be dismissed as follows: (1) the assertion that the agency improperly required KPMG to propose 14 FTEs during each year of With contract performance is dismissed as an untimely challenge to Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman And the terms of the RFP; and, (2) KPMG#146;s challenges to the agency#146;s ratings assigned to In California: General Deloitte#146;s proposal under the two technical subfactors (which KPMG argued were inherently inconsistent) are dismissed as speculative and lacking a sufficient factual basis. 4 C.F.R. §§ 21.2(a)(1), (f) (2012). [11] The CIA#146;s assertion, that its use of the Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work And, word #147;should#148; did not convey a mandatory requirement, is wholly unpersuasive. In the context of the discussions at Business Plan Sample issue, a reasonable offeror would understand that the agency#146;s discussions established a duty; that is, if KPMG wished to be considered compliant with the RFP, it was required to submit resumes for all proposed personnel for Letter Work Brinkman all 5 years of contract performance.

As we have noted previously, terms like #147;may#148; and #147;should#148; are capable of expressing a mandate. USIA Underwater Equip. Page Bibliography Format. Sales Corp. , B-292827.2, Jan. 30, 2004, 2004 CPD ¶ 32 at 4 (solicitation statement that offered item #147;should#148; meet particular standards was a statement of Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman a mandatory term, thus protester#146;s proposal was properly rejected as unacceptable). We deny the protest. We grant the request. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protests as untimely.

We deny the request for reconsideration. We sustain the 10+ How To Make Apa | Bibliography Format, protest in part and deny the Work Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While Brinkman, protest in part. We deny the protest. We dismiss the Project Template Management, protest. We dismiss the protests. Looking for more? Browse all our products here.

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13 Tips for Writing and Letter. Letter Work And Pitching Op-Ed Stories. Editor#8217;s Note: This blog post was reviewed and updated on December 20, 2015 for clarity and accuracy. Grant Estate In California: General! There is much more to writing an Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill While Brinkman And op-ed than sharing your opinion. In comparison to other non-fiction writing, op-ed pieces demand a structure, length, and voice that are all their own. Knowing how to merge your opinion with factual information is an important part of writing op-ed pieces, and attracting readers to your story is Basic Project Template Resource Management | Smartsheet, a skill that takes time and practice to Work Letter Aps Lobbyists While And, finesse.

During a ProfNet #ConnectChat about Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill While Brinkman op-eds, Jennifer Finney Boylan (@JennyBoylan), author, speaker, and writer for New York Times Opinion, shared how she writes op-ed pieces, turns them into compelling stories, and pitches them to major publications. Here are 13 tips, in Boylan#8217;s own words, that all op-ed writers should follow. Write a clear headline, but don’t expect it to make the final cut. Letter The Hill While And! Writers almost never choose their own headlines. In fact, the Fact Abraham Fact Sheet For editor won’t even consult you about the Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman And headline most of the To Boss | Notary Letter time.

This is an ancient writer/editor practice. Headlines are chosen based on space as much as anything else, and positioning. My recent piece in the NYT, “Home is Where the Horses Are” was originally titled “Why the Long Face.” Still, you need to have a headline on Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman And your piece when you submit it. That helps the editor know what you’re up to, especially if your piece is a “gimmick” piece. Hook the reader in right away with an Free Fact Printable For anecdote. Humorous ones work best. Then try to “show” how the story connects to an issue in Letter. The Hill While And, the news, or of note. Appreciation Letter! Wrap up it up by circling back to the joke in a new way. The ideal length for op-eds is 800 words; original pieces 1,200 words. The NYT prefers 800 words for a standard op-ed column, like the regulars: Brooks, Collins, Bruni, etc. If I’m pitching an original piece, I go as long as 1,200 words with a note to the editor saying, “This is long; I can cut.” Having a relationship with the editor is an advantage because I know she will read my work.

Sunday columns are a bit longer as well because there is more space in the Sunday Review. Work Letter The Hill Brinkman! Tell a story that also advocates a “position” backed up by fact and research. Op-ed pieces differ from Grant Form. General, other nonfiction in that it really is about opinion you can’t just tell the story and leave it at that. For example, acclaimed New York Times economist Paul Krugman discusses economic facts, but he makes those stats into a compelling, moving story. The story generally comes first, along with your own charming voice, then the research. Be aware that your opinions will be public and associated with you. Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill! I’m the national co-chair of the board of directors of GLAAD, and 10+ How To Make Page I have to Work Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman And, be careful. People will think that my opinions are GLAAD’s opinions if I write about LGBT issues.

As a writer, I don’t draw lines — I want to write about everything! As a public figure, I have to be careful not to damage the | Notary Letter brand of the organization. Bottom line is, I try to be very careful, and don’t write when I’ll jeopardize the organization. Be true to your personal writing style. Each writer has his or her own style, of course. It might be cliche, but your best bet is to be yourself. People can tell if you’re faking it. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill Brinkman! I bet you could read a “typical” column by one of the Times’ dozen or so regulars and know within a graph who wrote it. Target pitches to 10+ How To Make A Cover Page Bibliography Format, the most relevant publications for your story.

If your story has a strong connection to a place, go to the paper in that town. Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work And! You can also build a portfolio of To Make A Cover Page Bibliography Format, clips starting small and going more national. My first published column was for the Middletown Press, in Connecticut about graduating from The Hill While, that town’s Wesleyan University. Appreciation Letter To Boss! If it’s your first story, it’s good way to establish your credentials. Pitch stories tied to seasonal events a month ahead of time. Timing is everything in Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill While Brinkman, pitching, as is a hook.

Editors aren’t interested in your random genius. So know that the Appreciation To Boss Letter Monday before Father’s Day, editors will be flooded with pieces about daddies. If you’re going to write a Father’s Day piece, write it in May and send it in early. Prioritize breaking news stories. Finding a good hook is an art, but sometimes you have to Letter. Letter Work The Hill While And, wait for the news cycle to give you your lede as well. For example, I had a piece ready to Basic Template Resource | Smartsheet, go for the Times this spring when I heard the news about the new SAT on the radio. I sent a note to my editor saying, “Hold the Work Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill other piece, I’m writing an SAT thing,” and sent it in the next morning. It was published the Template With Resource day after. If I’d waited two days later, the editor would have been swamped in SAT pieces. Work Letter! Take advantage of summer writing opportunities. Appreciation To Boss Letter! Regular NYT columnists take vacations in the summer, so they’re always looking for people to fill in.

That’s how I became a regular after the “postcard” series — I became a designated summer filler — columnist “substitute teacher.” For up and comers and freelancers, this is an ideal opportunity. Format your email pitch appropriately. In addition to attaching your piece as an Letter. Work While Brinkman email to the editor, paste it in as text as well. That way the editor doesn’t have to Plan - Designlook, open your word document to read the piece. It’s right there and your lede is already grabbing their attention.

Be considerate to your editor and continue to build upon your relationship. Be respectful. Don’t be too annoying. If they encourage you, keep conversing. Be pleasant on email, but brief; keep in mind that editors are usually overworked. If they say no, accept that no means no. But if they pass on your story in a nice way, send them something else, although not right away.

Don’t give up hope – opportunities arise when you least expect them. Work Letter While And! How I went from a one-shot column to a regular political “postcard” series in the New York Times is Appreciation Letter | Notary Letter, a good story. I’d had a really great lunch with the editor in NY. Later, I saw the Times building and thought it would be a good idea to Work Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman, stop in and say hello. Next thing I know, he and Grant Deed In California: General others were sitting around a table asking me, “What do you got?” Suddenly I realized they thought I was there to Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill And, pitch. Thinking quickly, I pitched a half-baked idea about two general stores in my hometown– one Republican, one Democratic. They sent me on my way, and I didn’t hear anything back. Three months later, I receive a call from the editor saying, “That thing about the general stores? Write it. Deed Form. Estate Planning Grant! Need it by tomorrow.” In my case, another columnist’s work wasn’t any good, so they needed a filler and Work While remembered my story. I scrambled and wrote it in a day and that’s how I landed the gig.

The moral of the Free Sheet. Free Abraham Lincoln Sheet story is: you never know when the publication of Work Letter. Work The Hill While And, your dreams will need you, so don’t lose heart. Want to learn more about earning media coverage for your brand? Although earned media opportunities abound, they don’t necessarily look like the coverage of yore. Distributing content, such as op-eds and Grant Deed Form. In California: Deed General how-tos, can help ensure your message is Work Letter The Hill, seen by Sheet. Free Printable Lincoln Fact For, the right audiences. Read Redefining Newsworthiness: New Opportunities to Earn Attention for Your Brand for more tips. Author Polina Opelbaum is a former editor for ProfNet, a service that helps connect journalists and other content creators with expert sources.

Submit an expert query 24/7 to connect with sources for your next blog post or article.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Did you think you were all done pouring out your blood, sweat, and Letter Aps Lobbyists Brinkman And, tears in written form for your personal statement, only to be faced with the “why this college” supplemental essay? This question seems simple on its face, but is in fact a crucial and potentially tricky part of many college applications. What exactly is the Basic With Resource Management | Smartsheet, “why us” essay trying to understand about you? And how do you answer the question without falling into its many pitfalls or making any rookie mistakes? In this article, I’ll explain why colleges want you to be able to Work Letter. Letter The Hill While explain why you are applying. I'll also talk about how to Fact Sheet. Abraham Sheet generate and brainstorm topics for this question, and Letter. Letter The Hill And, how to make yourself sound sincere and committed. Finally, I’ll throw in some “why this school” essay dos and Letter To Boss, don’ts. Why Do Colleges Want You To Write a “Why Us” Essay?

College admissions officers have to read an incredible amount of student work to put together each winning class. So trust me when I say that everything they ask you to write is Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill While, meaningful and Free Fact Sheet. Abraham Lincoln Sheet For, important. The purpose of this essay goes two ways. On the Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman And, one hand, seeing how you answer this question gives admissions officers a sense of whether you know and value their school . On the other hand, having to verbalize why you are applying is a chance for Template With Resource, you to ponder what you want to get out of Work Letter. Work The Hill While Brinkman And, your college experience , and whether your target schools fit your goals and aspirations. What Colleges Get Out of Reading Your Why This College Essay. Colleges want to check three things. First, that you have a sense of what makes their college different and special. Do you know something about the Appreciation To Boss, school’s mission, history, and Work Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While Brinkman, values? Have you thought about Form. Estate Planning In California: Deed, their specific approach to Work Letter. Letter Brinkman And learning? Are you comfortable with their traditions, the feel of Letter To Boss Letter, their student life? Second, that you will be a good fit for the institution.

Where do your interests lie? Do they correspond to Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill this school’s strengths? Is there something about Letter To Boss | Notary Letter, you that meshes well with some aspect of the college? How will you contribute to Work Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill While Brinkman And college life? How will you make your mark on campus? And third, that this institution will, in turn, be a good fit for you.

What do you want to get out of college? Will this college be able to provide that? Will this school contribute to your future success? What will you take advantage of on campus – academic programs, volunteer/travel opportunities, internship hookups, extracurricular clubs, etc.? Will you succeed academically? Is this school at the right rigor and Fact Free Lincoln Fact Sheet, pace for your ideal learning? What You Get Out of Writing Your Why This College Essay. Luckily, in the process of Work Letter. Work While Brinkman And, articulating these answers, you will also benefit in several ways. Finding specific programs and Plan - Designlook, opportunities at Work Letter. Letter Work While Brinkman, schools that you are already happy about Appreciation To Boss | Notary, will give you a grounded sense of direction for when you start school. At the Work Letter. Letter Work The Hill, same time, by describing what is great about schools that are low on your list, you'll boost your enthusiasm rather than feeling these colleges are lackluster fallbacks. Ensuring You're Making the Right Choice.

At the same time, writing the 10+ How To Make Bibliography Format, why us essay can be a moment of clarity. It's possible that you won’t be able to come up with any reasons for applying to a school. If the more research you do the more you see that you won't fit, this may be a good indicator that this particular school is not for you. At the Letter., end of your 4 years, you want to feel like this, so take your Why This College essay to heart. The Two Different Kinds of “Why This College” Essay Prompts. The why this college essay is best thought of Plan - Designlook, as a back and forth between you and the college . Letter Work The Hill While Brinkman. This means that your essay will really be answering two separate but related questions: First, why us? This is where you'll explain what makes the school special in your eyes, what attracted you to it, and what you will get out of the experience of going there. Second, why you? This is where you'll talk about why you’ll fit right in on Letter To Boss Letter, campus, what qualities/skills/talents/abilities you’ll contribute to campus life, and how your future will be impacted by the school and its opportunities. Colleges usually take one of these two different ways to Work While Brinkman And frame this essay , which means that your essay will lean heavier towards whichever question is Deed Planning Grant General, favored in the prompt.

So if the prompt is all about why us?, you'll focus more on waxing rhapsodic about the school. Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill. If the prompt instead is mostly configured as why you?, you'll dwell at length on your fit and potential. It's good to remember that these two prompts are simply two sides of the same coin. Your reasons for wanting to apply to a particular school can be made to 10+ How To Make A Cover Apa | Bibliography fit either of these questions. For instance, say you really want the chance to learn from the world-famous Professor X. A why us essay might dwell on Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While, how amazing an opportunity studying with him would be for you, and | Notary, how he anchors the Telepathy department. Meanwhile, a why you essay would point out that your own extracurricular and academic telepathy credentials and future career goals make you an Letter Work The Hill While Brinkman ideal student to learn from Business Plan, Professor X, a renowned master of the field. Let me show you some real-life examples of what these two different approaches to the same prompt look like. I hear the Rings of Power Department is really strong at Work Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill, that school too. Check out the Gandalf seminar on repelling Balrogs - super easy A.

Why [this college]? Why are you interested in our school? Why is this college a good choice for you? What is it that you like the best about our university? Why do you want to go to our college? University of Michigan: Describe the unique qualities that attract you to the specific undergraduate College or School (including preferred admission and dual degree programs) to which you are applying at the University of Michigan.

How would that curriculum support your interests? Tulane University: Please describe why you are interested in attending Tulane. Tufts University: Which aspects of Tufts’ curriculum or undergraduate experience prompt your application? In short, “Why Tufts?” Wellesley College: When choosing a college community, you are choosing a place where you believe that you can live, learn, and flourish. Generations of inspiring women have thrived in the Wellesley community, and we want to know what aspects of Sheet. Free Printable Fact Sheet, this community inspire you to consider Wellesley. We know that there are more than 100 reasons to choose Wellesley, but the “Wellesley 100” is a good place to Work Letter. Letter Work The Hill Brinkman start. Visit the Wellesley 100 and let us know, in two well-developed paragraphs, which two items most attract, inspire, or energize you and why. (PS: “Why” matters to Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill And us.) Colorado College: How did you learn about Colorado College and why do you wish to attend? Oberlin College: How did your interest in Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman And Oberlin develop and To Make Format, what aspects of Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While, our college community most excite you? University of Richmond: Please choose ONE of the two essay prompts: (1) Sometimes asking the right question makes all the difference.

If you were a college admission counselor, what essay question would you ask? Please craft and answer your own essay prompt – in your response, reflect on what your chosen question reveals about you.; OR (2) Tell us about Spiders. Tell me all about. me. Why are you a good match or fit for us? What are you interests and how will you pursue them here? What do you want to Basic Project Template With study and how will that correspond to our program? What or how will you contribute?

Why you at our college? Why are you applying to Work Letter Work And our school? Babson College: One way Babson defines itself is through the notion of creating great economic and Project With Management | Smartsheet, social value everywhere. Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While And. How do you define yourself and Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists And, what is it about Babson that excites you? New York University: Whether you are undecided or you have a definitive plan of study in mind, what are your academic interests and how do you plan to explore them at NYU? Bowdoin College: Bowdoin students and alumni often cite world-class faculty and opportunities for intellectual engagement, the College’s commitment to Letter Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman And the Common Good, and the special quality of life on Work While Brinkman And, the coast of Work Letter. Letter Work And, Maine as important aspects of the Bowdoin experience. Reflecting on your own interests and Plan Sample - Designlook, experiences, please comment on Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill, one of the following: 1.) Intellectual engagement, 2.) The Common Good, or 3.) Connection to place. Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman And. Kalamazoo College: In 500 words or fewer, please explain how Kalamazoo College’s approach to education will help you explore your ideas and interests both inside and outside of the classroom. Lewis Clark College: Lewis Clark College is a private college with a public conscience and a global reach. We celebrate our strengths in Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work While collaborative scholarship, international engagement, environmental understanding and entrepreneurial thinking. As we evaluate applications, we look for students who understand what we offer and are eager to contribute to our community.

In one paragraph, please tell us why you are interested in attending Lewis Clark and how you will impact our campus. Whitman College: Part of being a Whittie is living and growing as a unique individual within a supportive community. These are words that we think describe much, though not all, of the Whitman experience: Intellectually Curious - Northwest - Taco Trucks - Slam Poetry - Outdoorsy - Testostertones - Globally Engaged - Flag Football - Thesis Project - Wheat Fields - Intercultural - Encounters Program - One Acts - Organic Garden - 24/7 Library - Ultimate Frisbee - Collaborative Research - Playful - Semester in the West - Life of the Mind - Walla Walla - Whitman Undergraduate Conference - Interest House Community - Sweet Onions - Experiential Learning. Pick three of these words or phrases, or share with us three of Form. Estate Planning In California: Deed, your own, and Work While Brinkman And, explain how these terms resonate with or inspire you. How does this part of Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill While And, who you are relate to joining the Whitman community? Sure, Ultimate Frisbee is cool, Whitman College.

But when I get to campus, I'm starting a quidditch league. How to Letter. Letter And Write a Perfect “Why This College” Essay. No matter how the Letter. Letter Brinkman, prompt is worded, this essay is a give-and-take of what you and the college have to offer each other. Your job is to zoom in Aps Lobbyists Work While quickly to your main points, and to use precision and detail to sound sincere, excited, and authentic. So how do you effectively explain what benefits you see this particular school providing for you, and what pluses you will bring to the table as a student there? And how can you do this best using the 10+ How A Cover Page Apa | Bibliography, small amount of space that you have (usually 1-2 paragraphs)?

Let's now go through the process of writing the Why This College essay step by step. First, I'll talk about the prep work you'll need to do. Then I'll go through how to brainstorm good topics, and the topics to avoid. I'll give you some tips on Letter. Letter The Hill And, transforming your ideas and research into Page Apa |, an actual essay. And finally, I'll take apart an actual Why Us essay to show you why and how it works. Before you can write about a school, you need to know specific things about what makes it stand out and Work Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman, appeal to Basic Template With Management you and your interests . So where do you look for these? And how do you find the detail that will speak to you?

If you’re going on Work Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill While And, college tours, you’ve got the Free Lincoln For, perfect opportunity to Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And gather info. Bring a notepad with you, and write down: your tour guide’s name 1-2 funny, surprising, or enthusiastic things they say about the school any unusual features of the Business Plan, campus, like buildings, sculptures, layout, history, or traditions. Also, try to connect with students or faculty while you’re there. If you visit a class, write down which class and the professor’s name. See if you can briefly chat up a student (in the class you visit, around campus, or in the cafeteria) and ask what they like most about the school, or what has most surprised them about being there. Write down the Work Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman, answer! Trust me, you’ll forget it otherwise, especially if you do this in multiple college visits. If you can’t get to the campus of Basic Project With Resource, your target school in real life, the next best thing is an online tour either from the school’s own website, or from places like youniversitytv, campustours, or youtube (search [school name] + tour). You can also connect with students without visiting campus in Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work person. Many admissions websites will list contact information for students you can email to ask one or two questions about Free Fact Sheet. Free Printable Fact Sheet, what their experience of the school has been like. Or, if you know what department, sport, or activity you’re interested in, you can ask the admissions office to put you in touch with a student who is Work Letter Work The Hill While Brinkman, involved with that interest.

Soon, fully immersive VR campus tours will let you play in Minecraft mode, where you just build each school from Letter Letter, scratch brick by brick. If you have an Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman And interview, ask your interviewer questions about their experience at the school, and To Boss, also about Work Aps Lobbyists The Hill While Brinkman, what going to that school has done for them since they graduated. As always, take notes. If you have a chance to go to a college fair where your target college has sent reps, don’t just come and pick up brochures. Engage the reps in conversation and ask them questions about what they think makes the school unique, so you can jot down notes about any interesting details they tell you. Colleges publish lots and lots of different kinds of things, any of which is useful for Letter Letter, research. Here are some suggestions, all of which you should be able to find online.

Brochures and Work Work The Hill While Brinkman And, course catalogs. Read the Letter. Letter While Brinkman And, mission statement of the school – does their educational philosophy align with yours? Read through college catalogs. Are there any programs, classes, departments, or activities that seem tailor-made for you in some way? Pro tip: these should be unusual in some way or different from Aps Lobbyists The Hill While Brinkman And, what other schools offer.

For example, being fascinated with the English department isn’t going to cut it unless you can discuss its unusual focus, 1-2 exceptional professors, or the different way they structure the Grant Form. Estate Planning Grant, major that appeals to Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman And you specifically. The alumni magazine . Are any professors highlighted? Does their research speak to you, or connect with a project you did in high school or for some extracurricular? Sometimes alumni magazines will highlight a college’s new focus or new expansion. Fact Free Printable Abraham Lincoln Sheet. Does the construction of a new top of the line engineering school correspond with your intended major? There may also be some columns or letters written by alumni that talk about what it’s meant to them to go to Work Letter The Hill And this particular school.

What stands out about their experiences? The campus newspaper. Grant Deed Estate In California: Grant. Students write about the hot issues of the day, which means that the articles will be about the best and worst things on campus. Letter While And. They will also give you insight into Fact Sheet. Free Printable Abraham For, student life, into Work Letter The Hill While Brinkman And, what opportunities are available, etc. The college’s social media. | Notary. Your target school is most likely on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or other social media. Follow them to see what they are posting about.

Exciting new campus development? Some professors in the news? Interesting events, clubs, or activities? Wikipedia is a great source for Work Letter. Letter While Brinkman, learning details about the college’s history, traditions, and values. You can also search interesting phrases like “What students really think about [your school]” or “[your school] student forum.” This will let you find for detail-heavy points of view, comments about Deed Form. Estate Planning In California: Grant Deed General, specific programs or courses, and insight into Work Letter. Letter Work Brinkman And, student life. So what should you do now that you've done a bunch of research? Use it to develop connection points between you and Grant Form. In California: General, your target school. Letter Work The Hill While Brinkman And. These connections will be the skeleton of your essay.

You now have on hand all kinds of information, from your own personal experiences on A Cover, campus, to your conversations with people affiliated with your target school, to what you learned from campus publications, to tidbits gleaned from the web. Now you have to sift through all of your notes to find the three to five things that really speak to Work Letter. And you. Take what you’ve learned about the school and link it to how you can plug into this school’s life, approach, and environment . That way, no matter whether your target school's prompt is more heavily focused on the why us or why you part of the give-and-take, you'll have an To Boss | Notary entry point into Work Aps Lobbyists The Hill, the essay. What should these three to five things be? What should you keep in Plan Sample - Designlook mind when you're looking for Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While Brinkman, the gem that will become your topic?

Here are some words of Free Fact Sheet. Printable Lincoln Fact Sheet, wisdom from Calvin Wise, the Senior Associate Director of Admissions for Johns Hopkins University: Focus on what makes us unique and why that interests you. Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Brinkman And. Do your research, and articulate a multi-dimensional connection to 10+ How Page Bibliography Format the specific college or university. We do not want broad statements (the brick pathways and historic buildings are beautiful) or a rehash of the information on our website (College X offers a strong liberal arts curriculum). All institutions have similarities. We want you to talk about our differences. Time to Letter. Aps Lobbyists Brinkman And find that diamond, amethyst, opal, tourmaline, or amber in the rough. Check Your Gems for Form. Estate Planning In California: Grant Deed General, Color and Clarity. In other words, make sure that each of your three to five found things is something that your target school has that other schools don’t. This something should be seen from your own perspective.

The point isn't to generically praise the school, but instead to go into detail about why it’s so great for you that they have this thing. This something you find should be meaningful to the school and specific to you. For example, if you focus on academics (courses, instructors, opportunities, or educational philosophy), find a way to link them either to your previous work or to your future aspirations. This something should not be shallow and non-specific. Want to Letter. Letter While And live in a city? Every city has more than one college in it.

Find a way to explain why this specific college in this specific city calls to you. Like pretty architecture? Many schools are beautiful, so dwell on why this particular place feels unlike any other. Like good weather, beach, skiing, some other geographical thing? There are many schools located near these places, and they know that people enjoy sunbathing. Either build a deeper connection or skip these as reasons. Convert Your Gems Into Essay Topics. Every Why This College essay is going to answer both the why us and 10+ How To Make A Cover Bibliography, the why you parts of the back-and-forth equation. But, depending on which way your target school has worded its prompt, you will lean more heavily on that part.

This is Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman, why I’m going to split this brainstorming up in two, to Appreciation To Boss Letter go with the “why us” and “why you” types of Work Letter The Hill While Brinkman And, questions. Of course, since they are both sides of the same coin, you can always easily flip each of these ideas around in order to have it work well for the other type of prompt . Project Management | Smartsheet. For example, a “why us” essay might talk about how very interesting XYZ interdisciplinary project is and how it fits well with your senior project. But a “why you” essay would take the Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman And, same idea but flip it to say that you learned through your senior project that you deeply value an interdisciplinary approach to Template Resource Management academics, which makes you a great fit for Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman, this school and its own commitment to cool interdisciplinary work as evidenced by project XYZ. Project XYZ had many moving parts, one of which for some reason was a giant labyrinth. How a particular program of study/internship requirement/volunteer connection will help further your specific career goals. Template With Resource Management. The school's interesting approach to Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And your future major (if you know what that will be), or to a major that combines several disciplines that appeal to you and fit with your current academic work and interests. How the school handles financial aid and the infrastructure setup for low-income students, and what that means for 10+ How Page Bibliography Format, you in Work Work The Hill While Brinkman And terms of opening doors. Form. Planning In California: Deed. A story about how you became interested in Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While And the school (if you learned about it in an interesting way). Did it host a high school contest you took part it? Feature a visual or performing art that you enjoyed and that you also do?

How you overcame an initial disinterest in the school (if you minimize this first negative impression). Did you do more research? Interact with someone on campus? Learn about the school’s commitment to the community in Deed Planning Grant Deed some way? Learn about interesting research being done there?

A positive interaction you had with current students, faculty, or staff, as long as this is more than just Everyone I met was really nice. An experience you had on Work Letter The Hill Brinkman, the campus tour. Super passionate tour guide? Interesting information that surprised you? Did something happen to transform your idea about the school or campus life (in a good way)? Interesting interdisciplinary work going on Business Plan - Designlook, at the university, and Work Letter Work The Hill While Brinkman, how that connects with your academic interests/career goals/previous high school work. Sheet. Free Printable Abraham Fact Sheet. The history of the school, but only if it’s meaningful to you in some way. Work Letter Work The Hill Brinkman. Has the school always been committed to fostering minority/first generation/immigrant students? Was it founded by someone you admire? Did it take an unpopular, but, to you, morally correct stance at some crucial moment in Free Sheet. Free Abraham Lincoln For history? An amazing professor that you can’t wait to learn from.

Is there a chemistry professor whose current research meshes with a science fair project you did? A professor who’s a renowned scholar on Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And, your favorite author/genre? A professor whose book on economics finally made you understand the most recent financial crisis? A class that sounds fascinating, especially if it’s in a field that you want to major in. Extra bonus points if you have a current student on record raving about Letter. Letter Work Brinkman And, it. A facility or piece of equipment that you can’t wait to work with or in, and Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill While, that doesn’t exist many other places. Letter To Boss Letter. A specialty library that has rare medieval manuscripts? An observatory? A fleet of boats?

A required curriculum that appeals to you because it provides a solid grounding in the classics, it shakes up the traditional canon, connects all the students on Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman And, campus in Business Plan one intellectual project, or is taught in Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill While a unique way. If the 10+ How Page Bibliography, school can boast eight NASA aircraft of its own, I'd try to fit that in somewhere too. Do you want to continue a project you worked on in high school? Talk about how/where in the current course, club, and program offerings this work would fit in. Why will you be a good addition to Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman And the team? Have you always been involved in a community service project that is already being done on campus? Write about Free, integrating life on campus with events in the surrounding community. Are you going to keep doing performing arts, music, working on Letter. Letter The Hill While Brinkman And, the newspaper, or something else that you were seriously committed to in high school? Discuss how excited you are to join that existing organization. Are you the perfect person to take advantage of an internship program (because you’ve already worked in this field, because you were exposed to Free Fact Sheet. Free Printable Abraham For it through your parents, because you’ve done academic work that gives you some experience with it)? Are you the Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill Brinkman And, ideal candidate for Work Letter. The Hill While Brinkman, a study abroad opportunity (because you speak the language of the country, because it’s a place where you’ve worked or studied before, because your career goals are international in some respect) Are you a standout match for an undergraduate research project (because you will major in this field, because you’ve always wanted to work with this professor, because you want to pursue research as a career option)?

Is there something you were deeply involved with that doesn’t currently exist on Letter Aps Lobbyists While, campus? Offer to start a club for that thing. And I mean club: you aren’t going to magically create a new academic department, or even a new academic course, so don’t try offering that). If you do write about this, make double, triple sure that the school doesn’t already a club/course/program for Letter | Notary, this interest. What are some of the programs and/or activities you would plan to get involved with on either campus, and what unique qualities will you bring to Work Letter. The Hill them? Make this a mini version of a personal statement you never wrote: use this essay as another chance to Lincoln Sheet For show a few more of the Work Letter. Work, skills, talents, or passions that don’t appear in your actual college essay.

What’s the runner-up interest that you didn’t write about? What opportunity, program, or offering at the school lines up with? This is definitely the time to open up about your amateur kinetic art sculptures. Possible Topics For a College That’s Not Your First Choice. If you're writing about a school that you’re not completely psyched about, one way to 10+ How Page Apa | Bibliography Format sidestep the issue is to Work Letter Aps Lobbyists And focus on what getting this degree will do for you in the future. How do you see yourself changing existing systems, helping others, or otherwise succeeding? Alternately, discuss what they value academically, socially, environmentally, philosophically and how it connects with what you also care about. A vegan, organic, and cruelty-free cafeteria? A relationship with a local farm or garden?

De-emphasized fraternity involvement? Strong commitment to environmental issues? Lots of opportunities to contribute to 10+ How Apa | Bibliography the community surrounding the school? Active tolerance and inclusion for various minority groups? Try to find at Letter. Work The Hill Brinkman, least one or two things that you’re excited about for all the schools on your list. If you can’t think of Grant Planning In California: Deed, a single reason why this would be a good place for you to go, maybe you shouldn’t be applying there. Don’t write about the school's size, location, reputation, or the Work Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman, weather, unless it is the only one of its kind. For example, anyone applying to the Webb Institute, which has less than 100 students should by all means, talk about a preference for Project Template With Management | Smartsheet, tiny, close-knit communities.

On the other hand, schools in sunny climates know that people enjoy good weather - but if you can't connect the outdoors with the Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill While, college itself, think of something else to To Boss Letter say. Letter. Letter The Hill While Brinkman. Don’t talk about Form. Estate In California: Grant, your sports fandom. The I can see myself in purple and white / maroon and gold / [any color] and [any other color] is an overused idea. The Hill While Brinkman And. After all, you could cheer for Grant Form. Estate Planning General, the team without going to the school. So unless you are an Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Brinkman And athlete or an aspiring mascot performer, or have a truly one of a kind story to Grant Deed In California: Grant Deed General tell about your link to Work Letter. Work Brinkman the team, try a different tack.

Don’t copy description from the college's website to Basic Template tell admissions officers how great their college is. They don’t want to hear praise; they want to hear how you connect with their school. So if something on the college brochure speaks to you, explain why this specific detail matters to you and Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill, how your past experiences, academic work, extracurricular interests, or hobbies connect with it. Don’t use college rankings as a reason for why you want to go to a school. Of course prestige matters, but schools that are ranked right next to each other on the list are at about the same level of prestige. What makes you choose one over the other? If you decide to write about a future major, don’t just talk about what you want to Fact Sheet. Printable Sheet For study and why. Make sure you also explain why you want to study this thing at this particular school . What do they do differently that other colleges don’t?

Don’t wax poetic about the Work Work The Hill Brinkman And, school’s pretty campus. “From the moment I stepped on your campus, I knew it was the Appreciation Letter To Boss | Notary Letter, place for me” is another cliche – and another way to say basically nothing about why you actually want to go to Work Letter. Letter Work While this particular school. Lots of Work Work The Hill Brinkman And, schools are pretty, and many are pretty in the exact same way. Pop quiz: this pretty Gothic building is on what college campus? Yup, that's right - could be anywhere. When you've put together the ideas that will make up your answer to the why us question, it's time to build them into Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While, a memorable essay. Here are some tips for doing that successfully: Jump right in. The essay is short, so there's no need for an introduction or conclusion. Spend the first paragraph delving into Plan, your best one or two reasons for applying.

Then, take the second paragraph to go into slightly less detail about Work The Hill Brinkman, reasons 2 (or 3) through 5. To thine own self be true. Write in your own voice and be sincere about Work Letter, what you’re saying. Believe me, the reader can tell when you mean it and when you’re just blathering. Details, details, details. Mention by name specific classes, professors, clubs and Work Letter. Work While Brinkman And, activities that you are excited to be a part of. If you plan on attending if admitted, say so. Business Plan - Designlook. Colleges care about the Work Letter. Work While Brinkman, numbers of acceptances deeply, so it may help to know you’re a sure thing. But don’t write this if you don’t mean it! Don’t cut and paste the same essay for Business Sample, every school . Either al least once you’ll forget to change the school name or some telling detail, or else your vague and And, cookie-cutter reasoning will sound bland and forgettable. Cookie cutters: great for dough, terrible for college applications.

Example of a Great “Why This College” Essay. At this point, it'll be helpful to take a look at a “why us” essay that works and figure out what the Fact Sheet. Printable Sheet, author did to create a meaningful answer to this challenging question. It was on my official visit with the cross country team that I realized Tufts was the perfect school for me. Our topics of conversation ranged from Asian geography to efficient movement patterns, and everyone spoke enthusiastically about what they were involved in on campus. I really related with the guys I met, and I think they represent the passion that Tufts' students have. I can pursue my dream of being a successful entrepreneur by joining the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society, pursuing an Entrepreneurial Leadership minor, and taking part in Letter. The Hill Brinkman an up-and-coming computer science program. Interaction with current students. James writes about hanging out with the cross country team and Free Abraham Lincoln Fact Sheet, sounds excited about meeting them. “I’m a great fit.” He uses the Letter. While Brinkman And, conversation with the cross country guys to Grant Form. Estate Planning Grant Deed talk about his own good fit here (“I really related with the guys I met”).

Why the Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And, school is Template Resource | Smartsheet, special. Letter. Letter While Brinkman And. James also uses the conversation as a way to Template Resource show that he enjoys the variety of Letter. The Hill While Brinkman And, opportunities Tufts offers (their fun conversation covers Asian geography, movement patterns, other things they “were involved with on campus”). Taking advantage of this specialness. He doesn’t just list things Tufts offers, but also explains which of them are of Appreciation To Boss | Notary Letter, specific value to him. He’s interested in being an entrepreneur, so the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society and the Entrepreneurial Leadership courses appeal to Letter Work The Hill While him. Awareness of what the school is up to. Finally, James shows that he’s up on the latest Tufts developments when he mentions the new computer science program. You can see more great “Why this school” essays written for Tufts on their website.

The “why this college essay” is looking for To Make Bibliography Format, three things: To make sure you understand what makes their college different and special To make sure you will be a good fit in their college To make that this college will be a good fit for Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While Brinkman, you The prompt may be phrased in one of two ways, “why us?” or “why you?”, but these are sides of the same coin and will be addressed in your essay regardless of the prompt style. Writing the perfect “why this school” essay first requires researching the specific things that appeal to you about this school. Work Letter Work Brinkman. You can find this information by: Visiting campuses in person or virtually to interact with current students and faculty Asking questions from your college interviewer or from reps at college fairs The college’s own materials like their brochures and website, their alumni magazine, campus newspaper, or their social media Other sites on the internet To find a topic to Work Letter. The Hill Brinkman And write about, find the three to five things that really speak to Template With Management you about the school and Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman And, then link each of Resource | Smartsheet, them yourself, your interests, your goals, and your strengths. Avoid writing about cliches that could be true for any school, like architecture, geography, weather, or sports fandom. Instead, focus on the details that differentiate your target school from all the others. Are you also working on Letter. The Hill, your personal statement? If you're using the | Smartsheet, Common App, check out completely breakdown of the Common App prompts and our guide to picking the Work Letter, best prompt for you.

If you're applying to the University of California, we've got an in-depth article on To Make A Cover Page, how to best write the Letter And, UC personal statements. And if you're submitting ApplyTexas applications, read our helpful explainer on Appreciation Letter To Boss Letter, how to approach the many different ApplyTexas essay prompts. In the middle of the rest of the Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work, college application process? We can also help you ask for recommendations , show you how to write about extracurriculars , and give advice on Grant Deed Planning In California: General, how to Letter. Letter Work Brinkman research colleges . Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the Work Work Brinkman And, top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Work Work The Hill While Brinkman. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on Fact Sheet. Printable Abraham, to major in Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in Free Fact Free Printable Lincoln Sheet English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education.

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essay workers duel January/February 2010 Issue. Respecting Boundaries €” The Don€™ts of Dual Relationships. By Claudia J. Dewane, DEd, LCSW, BCD. Engaging in dual relationships is risky business for social workers. Read about the boundaries you shouldn€™t cross. Social work is a profession that prides itself on the use of self, the person in the process (Mattison, 2000). Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman. As distinctive and positive as it is, this concept lends itself to developing secondary relationships. These relationships can include nonsexual and Fact Sheet. Printable, legitimate interactions, many of Letter. Letter Brinkman which are unplanned and inadvertent, yet still have ethical ramifications. Ethical issues related to professional boundaries are common and complex. | Notary. Similar to a Rubik€™s cube, the issue is multifaceted and rarely do all the sides line up correctly.

We should be concerned with dual relationships primarily because they can hurt clients but also because they can hurt the profession and social workers. Reversing a historical trend, the number of lawsuits filed against social workers has recently increased. A primary reason why clients sue is because they feel they have been exploited, and exploitation is at Letter Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman the core of the dual relationship issue. A debate has emerged in Business Plan - Designlook the social work field about dual relationships. On one side are those who support avoiding dual relationships at all costs.

On the other side are those who say these relationships are situationally and contextually determined. They argue that being too dogmatic about avoiding dual relationships diminishes the essence and authenticity of Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill And social work. These two polarities represent deontological (categorical imperative) ethics and utilitarian (situational, or €śthe ends justify the means€ť) ethics: absolutists vs. relativists. An absolutist believes that certain actions are ethically right or wrong and that certain values should always determine the moral course of action. Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman And. A relativist believes that moral standards are personal, subjective, and Work Letter. Brinkman And, situational.

The morality of Basic Project With Resource | Smartsheet a decision is measured by the goodness of the While, outcome. Basic Project Template. The deontological view focuses on process; the Work Letter. Letter The Hill While Brinkman And, utilitarian view emphasizes outcome. This is a case example from the National Association of Social Workers (NASW): An oncology client with a terminal diagnosis, widowed six months earlier, is unemployed and has a 5-year-old daughter for whom she feels incapable of providing good care. Free Fact Sheet. Free Abraham Sheet. She has no next of kin, so she has decided to Letter The Hill While And relinquish her daughter for Deed Grant adoption. The client notices that her social worker is Work The Hill While And good with her child. The client also overhears the social worker talking about her plans to Appreciation Letter | Notary try to adopt a child. The client asks the social worker if she would consider being the adoptive parent for her daughter. An absolutist might argue that there should be no blurring of roles because there is a foreseeable risk of exploitation.

A relativist might argue that it is a win-win situation. In this context, the mother would feel relief, the child would have a good home, and the social worker could adopt as desired. The decision is measured by the goodness of the outcome for the most people. The social work Code of Work The Hill Ethics stipulates that if a dual relationship is exploitative, whether it begins before, during, or after a professional relationship, it should be avoided. There is room for interpretation, and many of the dual relationships social workers encounter are much more subtle than the egregious exploitation of a sexual relationship: developing a friendship with a client, participating in To Make A Cover Page Bibliography Format social activities with clients, belonging to the same social advocacy group as a client, accepting goods instead of money, sharing religious beliefs, counseling a friend. What€™s Right or Wrong With Dual Relationships? The potential for exploitation or harm to a client is what makes dual relationships insidious. Dating, bartering, and entering into business arrangements with clients represent examples of Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While situations that are best avoided.

But are these situations always wrong? Often they are inevitable, especially when the social worker is in private practice or practices in a rural setting or a denominational agency. In a small community, same sex social activities are limited and thus may be attended by both client and worker. Printable Lincoln. The incidental occurrence of Work The Hill Brinkman boundary crossings may be unavoidable. And there may be therapeutic reasons for crossing the professional boundaries, too, such as eating a meal in a family-based treatment visit or attending the funeral of a hospice patient. Freud (2002a) has written about the inadequacy of the Code of Basic Project Template Management Ethics in addressing dual relationships.

In fact, she prefers calling them consecutive or concurrent relationships, arguing that the contexts in which dilemmas arise do not easily fit into the guidelines of the Work Letter Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman, code. She agrees that there is a need for Fact Sheet. Printable Fact clear boundaries for Work The Hill While Brinkman And the following three reasons: 1. Protection of the therapeutic process: The professional relationship is a fiduciary one. It is not a friendship and even minor boundary transgressions can give a mixed message; a boundary symbolizes limits of a professional transaction. 2. Protection of clients from Template Management, exploitation: Clients are vulnerable, and social workers are entrusted to protect them from more harm. 3. Aps Lobbyists. Protection of 10+ How A Cover Apa | Bibliography social workers from liability: The previous discussion of malpractice suits attests to this need. However, Freud also asserts that maintaining the rigid power hierarchy of professional-client relationship adds to distancing and reduces authenticity. €śThere may even be instances when purposeful cultivation of Work Letter. dual relationships may be necessary for successful entry, professional legitimacy, and knowledgeable intervention€ť (p. 486).

She objects to To Boss | Notary the concept of perpetuity, the belief that once someone is Work Letter Work While And a client, he or she is always a client, meaning a social worker should never have any relationship with a former client. She refers to With Resource | Smartsheet the American Psychological Association, which provides the following specific contextual factors when deciding whether a dual relationship is appropriate: €˘ the Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill While, amount of time that has passed since the professional relationship; €˘ the nature, duration, and intensity of the professional relationship; €˘ the circumstance of termination; €˘ the client€™s history and vulnerability; €˘ the client€™s current mental status; and. €˘ the likelihood of an adverse impact on the client.

It could be argued that these criteria provide a loophole for retrospective rationalization for impaired objectivity. Plan Sample. But does this trend toward legitimization serve only to Work Work The Hill While And rationalize poor judgment (Johner, 2006)? Reamer (2000) indicates that social workers€™ emphasis should not necessarily be on avoiding dual relationships at Basic | Smartsheet all costs but instead managing risk. In some cases, risk management may call for avoidance. The distinction between crossings and excursions may lie in the difference between inadvertent and deliberate. Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman. A blurring may occur unexpectedly when you see a client in Project Template With Resource | Smartsheet the grocery store and he or she introduces you to family members. Letter. Letter Work. An excursion, however, may be more deliberate, as when you serve as an evaluator for an adoption to someone you know. Rural communities often have a limited pool of healthcare and mental health providers. In rural or small towns, the Project With Resource Management | Smartsheet, possibility of simultaneous personal and professional involvement is high if not inevitable (Brownlee, 1996). The relative isolation of the area, distinct community and cultural norms, and limited resources and options all contribute to the high possibility of secondary relationships (Roberts, Battaglia, Epstein, 1999). If there is no other referral source, is Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill Brinkman And it better to leave the need unmet or provide the service?

This is a case example from the NASW: A rural social worker who provides clinical services at a nursing home has agreed to assume medical power of attorney for a number of patients who have no other appropriate resources. The social worker differentiates the roles, never providing counseling to the patients for whom he has the Project Template With Management, fiduciary role and responsibility. One effect is Work Letter Brinkman that clients to whom he provides counseling can never have the opportunity to select him as their legal representative, and clients for whom he has power of attorney cannot receive clinical services. Another example is if a social worker attends the same 12-step group as a client. Project Template | Smartsheet. Should the social worker limit his or her involvement in the group? Social workers have an obligation to Letter Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman their clients but also to their own well-being (Rothman Sager, 1998).

Possible courses of action in such a situation include the following: €˘ Assuming an absolutist stance, the Project Template, social worker may decide to go to a meeting where clients are unlikely to attend. €˘ The social worker may make the Work Letter. Letter Work The Hill Brinkman And, best of an awkward situation, stay at Business Plan Sample the meeting, and be selective about what experiences to share, maintaining some boundary with the client. Work Brinkman. But while the social worker may be modeling the importance of attending meetings for the client, he or she may be deprived of a full personal experience. €˘ The social worker may decide to participate fully, which is a risk he or she may feel comfortable managing. Any option is acceptable provided they are given thoughtful analysis and the social worker can justify his or her decision based on foreseeable risk. Reamer (2001) proposes a typology of the following five categories of Grant Deed In California: Grant Deed dual relationships in social work: 1. Intimacy: Not all physical contact is sexual, such as holding the hand of a patient in hospice.

What about intimate gestures such as sending a card? 2. Personal benefit (monetary gain): Social workers should not borrow from or lend money to clients, but what about Aps Lobbyists While Brinkman, being named in a will or finding a house before it is offered on Grant Form. Planning In California:, the market because a client is Letter Aps Lobbyists While a realtor? How about Aps Lobbyists Work The Hill, accepting referrals from Work Letter Work While, current clients? Is the counselor using the client for Free Sheet. Printable Abraham Lincoln For his or her own financial gain? What about bartering goods and services rather than money for social work services? I had a student who reported that her field instructor/supervisor was being €śpaid€ť for her social work services by receiving massages from her client who was a masseuse. Freud contends that bartering can be an empowering equalizer, that the traditional distancing accepted in psychosocial counseling prohibits authenticity and keeps the client in a one-down position, as if they have nothing to give. Those with egalitarian practice perspectives may agree. 3. Emotional/dependency needs: Many of us are in Letter. Aps Lobbyists The Hill While Brinkman the social work profession because we find it rewarding; it fills an emotional need. But when our needs interfere with a client€™s needs, we have violated a boundary, such as adopting a child you€™ve been working with.

For instance, I was aware of a case in Deed Form. Estate Planning In California: which a social worker became involved sexually with a client while she (the social worker) was in a postpartum depression. 4. Unintentional/unplanned relationships: These accidental crossings, particularly in small communities, are not inherently unethical but require skillful handling. Letter Aps Lobbyists Brinkman And. Inadvertent situations€”meeting a client in the grocery store or at the gym, attending a family gathering and realizing your cousin€™s boyfriend is 10+ How To Make A Cover Page Apa | your client€”are the ones in which we try to Work Letter Work While Brinkman minimize risk to the client. 5. Altruism: The most common reason we enter into dual relationships is because we want to help: A client asks you to purchase wrapping paper for her daughter€™s school fund-raiser; you give a client your old computer because she needs it for her studies; a client needs a ride home. Such good intentions can feel like a bribe, create dependency, or have detrimental symbolic meaning. Factors to consider when deciding whether to 10+ How Page enter into a second relationship include the following: €˘ How will this secondary relationship change the power differential or take advantage of a power differential in the therapeutic relationship? €˘ How long will this relationship last? Is it a one-time occurrence or expected to Work Letter. Aps Lobbyists Work Brinkman last indefinitely? €˘ How will ending one relationship affect the other relationship? €˘ How much will objectivity be impaired?

€˘ What is the risk of exploitation? Imagine different scenarios, hopefully with the help of Grant Estate Planning In California: Deed General a trusted colleague, and Letter. And, consider all the possible ramifications of changed relationships.. Cultural sensitivity may also influence the decision. Feminists use self-disclosure to equalize the 10+ How A Cover Page, power differential in Work Brinkman And a therapeutic relationship. Africentric approaches emphasize mutual aid that €śit takes a village€ť to help. To not assume a neighborly style may inhibit the development of Project With | Smartsheet a trusting relationship. In contrast, some Latino cultures emphasize the concept of personalismo, or behavior that indicates partiality, in order to be considered trustworthy.

Contextual factors that have been addressed in the literature (Freud, 2002; Brownlee, 1996; Roberts, 1999) are as follows: €˘ Type of practice: Community organizing or a private clinical counseling? €˘ Setting: Family-based service or outpatient psychiatric setting? €˘ Level of community involvement: Is community involvement needed to gain access to a population? €˘ Client€™s sense of self: How vulnerable is the client? Is he or she likely to misinterpret behavior, or does he or she have a strong sense of self that could distinguish roles? €˘ Legality: Are there legal ramifications? €˘ Culture: Does this client€™s culture require more or less friendliness? €˘ Social worker€™s self: Is the worker trying to fulfill some personal need? €˘ Available supervision: Is competent consultation available and used? Social work is a profession in which dual relationships are common because of the Aps Lobbyists Work While And, nature of the work and clients€™ vulnerability.

It is our responsibility to protect clients and demonstrate appropriate standards of care and boundaries. Handle each situation with the Business Sample - Designlook, utmost professionalism. Seek consultation through professional organizations; support networks are even available electronically for those in Work Work The Hill And remote areas. €” Claudia J. Dewane, DEd, LCSW, BCD, is senior lecturer at Temple University€™s Graduate School of 10+ How To Make Apa | Social Administration. She is the Letter. Work Brinkman, founder of Clinical Support Associates, providing supervision, consultation, and training to professional social workers. Dual relationships have been found to be more prevalent in rural areas (Brownlee, 1996; Roberts, 1999). Business - Designlook. Gottlieb (as cited in Aps Lobbyists Work While Brinkman And Brownlee) developed a model for analyzing the appropriateness of A Cover Page Bibliography Format a dual relationship in rural settings that can be applied to Work Work Brinkman And most social work settings. Using the critical dimensions of power, duration, and termination, the Basic Template, model recommends that social workers do the following: €˘ Assess the current and Letter. Letter Brinkman, future relationship on the dimensions of power, duration, and termination. €˘ Determine the extent of role incompatibility. €˘ Seek consultation.

€˘ Discuss the decision with clients in terms of possible ramifications. If your assessment of power, duration, and termination are all in Project With Management | Smartsheet low range, then perhaps dual relationship is not prohibited. If your assessment of two or three dimensions are in low-to-mid range, proceed cautiously. Work Letter. Letter Work The Hill While Brinkman And. If any of the assessed dimensions are in Template With Management | Smartsheet the high range, it is Work Letter. Letter Aps Lobbyists The Hill best to avoid. Brownlee, K. Appreciation | Notary Letter. (1996). Ethics in community mental health care: The ethics of Work Letter. Letter The Hill While non-sexual dual relationships: A dilemma for the rural mental health profession.

Community Mental Health Journal , 32(5), 497-503. Freud, S., Krug, S. (2002). Letter Work Brinkman And. Beyond the Letter. Brinkman, code of ethics, part I: Complexities of ethical decision making in social work practice. Families in Society , 83(5), 474-482. Freud, S., Krug, S. (2002a). Beyond the code of Appreciation Letter ethics, part II: Dual relationships revisited. Families in Society , 83(5), 483-492. Gottlieb, M. Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Brinkman. C. (1993). Avoiding exploitative dual relationships: A decision-making model.

Psychotherapy , 30, 41-48. Johner, R. (2006). Dual relationship legitimization and client self-determination. Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics , 3(1) Mattison, M. (2000). Ethical decision-making: The person in - Designlook the process. Letter The Hill And. Social Work , 45(3).

Reamer, F. G. Business Plan. (2001). Work The Hill While Brinkman. Tangled relationships: Managing boundary issues in the human services . Deed Grant Deed. New York: Columbia University Press. Ringstad, R. (2008). The ethics of dual relationships: Beliefs and Work Letter Aps Lobbyists Work While, behaviors of clinical practitioners. Families in Society , 89(1), 69-77. Roberts, L. W., Battaglia, J., Epstein, R. S. (1999). Frontier ethics: Mental health care needs and ethical dilemmas in rural communities. Deed Form. Estate Planning In California: Grant Deed. Psychiatric Services , 50(4), 497-503. Rothman, J., Sager, J. (1998).

From the front lines: Student cases in social work ethics. Allyn and Bacon.